As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 12, 2024

Registration No. 333-

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 


 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 


 

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NeuroBo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 


 

Delaware

 

47-2389984

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

 


 

545 Concord Avenue, Suite 210

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138

(857) 702-9600

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 


 

Hyung Heon Kim

President and Chief Executive Officer

545 Concord Avenue, Suite 210

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138

(857) 702-9600

(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 


 

Copies to:

Phillip D. Torrence, Esq.

Samuel Katz, Esq.

Honigman LLP

2290 First National Building

660 Woodward Avenue

Detroit, MI 48226-3506

(313) 465-7000


 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  


If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

 

 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 


The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED APRIL 12, 2024 

PROSPECTUS

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$150,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Offered, from time to time, by NeuroBo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

We may, from time to time, offer and sell up to an aggregate amount of $150,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in combination, at prices and on terms described in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also offer common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of debt securities, or common stock upon conversion of preferred stock, or common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon exercise of warrants.

This prospectus describes some of the general terms that may apply to an offering of our securities by us. We will provide the specific terms of these offerings and securities in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference, before buying any of the securities being offered.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement. 

We may sell these securities directly to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers, on a continuous or delayed basis. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus on page 27 and in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any agents or underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such agents or underwriters and any applicable discounts or commissions and over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “NRBO.” On April 5, 2024, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market was $3.88 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the Nasdaq Capital


Market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. Our principal executive offices are located at 545 Concord Avenue, Suite 210, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 and our telephone number is (857) 702-9600.

We are a “smaller reporting company” under the federal securities laws and, as such, are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements. As of April 8, 2024, the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates, or public float, was approximately $8.3 million, based on 2,082,804 shares held by non-affiliates and a price of $3.97 per share, which was the price at which our common stock was last sold on Nasdaq on such date. We have not offered any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 during the prior 12-calendar-month period that ends on and includes the date of this prospectus. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell securities registered on this registration statement in a public primary offering with a value exceeding more than one-third of our public float in any 12-month period so long as our public float remains below $75 million, or the Baby Shelf Limitation. See “Summary - Implications of Being a Smaller Reporting Company.”

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus on page 6, in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K incorporated by reference into this prospectus, in the applicable prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense. 

The date of this prospectus is , 2024


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

1

RISK FACTORS

6

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

6

USE OF PROCEEDS

9

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

9

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

15

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

22

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

24

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

27

LEGAL MATTERS

29

EXPERTS

29

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

29

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

30

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer to sell or seeking an offer to buy securities under this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. The information contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, are accurate only as of their respective dates, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under this shelf registration statement, we may sell from time to time in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $150,000,000 of common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination with other securities as described in this prospectus, subject to the Baby Shelf Limitation. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.

Each time we offer any type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, will include all material information relating to the applicable offering. You should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the additional information described under “Where You Can Find More Information,” before buying any of the securities being offered.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering. Neither we, nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so.

The information appearing in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document, and any information we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of securities. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

This prospectus contains and incorporates by reference market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe that these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. Although we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the market and industry data presented in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference, these estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be

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filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

No action is being taken in any jurisdiction outside the United States to permit a public offering of our securities or possession or distribution of this prospectus in that jurisdiction. Persons who come into possession of this prospectus in jurisdictions outside the United States are required to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions as to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus applicable to that jurisdiction.

Except as otherwise indicated herein or as the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to “NeuroBo,” “the company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar references refer to NeuroBo Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a corporation incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware.

This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated by reference herein and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, before making your investment decision.

Company Overview

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused primarily on developing and commercializing novel pharmaceuticals to treat cardiometabolic diseases. NeuroBo has two primary programs focused on treatment of metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis (“MASH”) and obesity. MASH was formerly known as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (“NASH”). The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (“AASLD”) and its European and Latin American counterparts changed the name to metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis to reflect the complexity of the disease.

DA-1241 is a novel G-Protein-Coupled Receptor 119 (“GPR119”) agonist with development optionality as a standalone and/or combination therapy for both MASH and type 2 diabetes (“T2D”). Agonism of GPR119 in the gut promotes the release of key gut peptides, glucagon-like peptide-1 (“GLP-1”), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (“GIP”), and peptide YY (“PYY”). These peptides play a further role in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and weight loss. DA-1241 has beneficial effects on glucose, lipid profile and liver inflammation, supported by potential efficacy demonstrated during in vivo preclinical studies. The therapeutic potential of DA-1241 has been demonstrated in multiple pre-clinical animal models of MASH and T2D where DA-1241 reduced hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and improved glucose control.

In Phase 1a and 1b human trials, DA-1241 was well tolerated in both healthy volunteers and those with T2D.
We initiated a Phase 2a trial in 2023 with the goal of establishing the mechanism of action and efficacy of DA-1241 in the treatment of MASH and to evaluate trends for T2D. This is the first-in-human MASH trial for DA-1241 and we are expecting top line results by the end of 2024.

DA-1726 is a novel oxyntomodulin (“OXM”) analogue functioning as a GLP-1 receptor (“GLP1R”) and glucagon receptor (“GCGR”) dual agonist for the treatment of obesity that is to be administered once weekly subcutaneously. DA-1726 acts as a dual agonist of GLP1R and GCGR. Activating GLP1R may lead to weight loss through reduced appetite while activating GCGR may increase energy expenditure. DA-1726 has a well understood mechanism and, in preclinical mice models, resulted in improved weight loss compared to semaglutide and tirzepatide.

We received Investigational New Drug (“IND”) approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) for DA-1726 and we intend to initiate a Phase 1 clinical trial during the first half of 2024.

While we focus our financial resources and management’s attention on the development of DA-1241 and DA-1726, we also have four legacy therapeutic programs designed to impact a range of indications in viral, neurodegenerative and cardiometabolic diseases which we continue to consider for out-licensing and divestiture opportunities:

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ANA001, a proprietary oral niclosamide formulation for the treatment of patients with moderate COVID-19.

NB-01 for the treatment for painful diabetic neuropathy (“PDN”).

NB-02 for the treatment of cognitive impairment.

Gemcabene for the treatment of dyslipidemia.

Our operations have consisted principally of performing research and development (“R&D”) activities, preclinical developments, clinical trials, and raising capital. Our activities are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, including failing to secure additional funding before sustainable revenues and profit from operations are achieved.

Company Information

NeuroBo was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in July 2017. Our principal executive offices are located at 545 Concord Avenue, Suite 210, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138. Our telephone number is (857) 702-9600. Our website address is www.neurobopharma.com. The information contained in, or accessible through, our website does not constitute part of this prospectus, should not be relied on in determining whether to make an investment decision, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.

We make available on or through our website certain reports and amendments to those reports that we file with, or furnish to, the SEC in accordance with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. These include our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. We make this information available on or through our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the information with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

Implications of Being a Smaller Reporting Company 

We are a “smaller reporting company,” as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act, meaning that the market value of our shares held by non-affiliates is less than $700 million and our annual revenue was less than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company if either (i) the market value of our shares held by non-affiliates is less than $250 million or (ii) our annual revenue was less than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and the market value of our shares held by non-affiliates is less than $700 million. As a smaller reporting company, we may continue to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are available to smaller reporting companies. Specifically, as a smaller reporting company, we may choose to present only the two most recent fiscal years of audited financial statements in our Annual Report on Form 10-K and, similar to emerging growth companies, smaller reporting companies have reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation. Additionally, as a smaller reporting company, we may continue to take advantage of the exception from compliance with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended. If investors consider our common shares less attractive as a result of our election to use the scaled-back disclosure permitted for smaller reporting companies, there may be a less active trading market for our common shares and our share price may be more volatile.

Nasdaq Listing 

Our common stock is listed on Nasdaq, under the symbol “NRBO.” The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on Nasdaq or any other securities market or other exchange of the securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.

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Description of Securities We May Offer

We may offer shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination with other securities, up to a total aggregate offering price of $150,000,000 from time to time in one or more offerings under this prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined at the time of any offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

designation or classification;

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

maturity, if applicable;

original issue discount, if any;

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

redemption, conversion, exercise, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;

ranking, if applicable;

restrictive covenants, if any;

voting or other rights, if any;

conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange; and

a discussion of material United States federal income tax considerations, if any.

The applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We, and our or their agents, underwriters or dealers reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities to or through agents, underwriters or dealers, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

the names of those agents, underwriters or dealers;

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

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the estimated net proceeds to us.

Common Stock

We may issue shares of our common stock from time to time. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote per share for the election of directors and on all other matters that require stockholder approval. Subject to any preferential rights of any then outstanding preferred stock, in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in the assets remaining after payment of liabilities and the liquidation preferences of any then outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock does not carry any preemptive rights enabling a holder to subscribe for, or receive shares of, any class of our common stock or any other securities convertible into shares of any class of our common stock, or any redemption rights.

Preferred Stock

We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. Our board of directors will determine the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, including dividend rights, conversion rights, preemptive rights, terms of redemption or repurchase, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of any series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of our common stock. Convertible preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or exchangeable for other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at your option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

If we sell any series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of such series of preferred stock, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock that we are offering before the issuance of the related series of preferred stock. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the preferred stock under “Description of Capital Stock—Preferred Stock.” We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.

Debt Securities

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible or exchangeable debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. Conversion or exchange may be mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) and would be at prescribed conversion or exchange rates.

Any debt securities issued under this prospectus will be issued under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities under “Description of Debt Securities.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indenture and any supplemental indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. A form of indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

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Warrants

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or in combination with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants under “Description of Warrants.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as any warrant agreements and warrant certificates, as applicable, that contain the terms of the warrants. We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants.

Any warrants issued under this prospectus may be evidenced by warrant certificates. Warrants also may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.

Use of Proceeds

Except as described in any prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby for general corporate purposes, which may include research and development, capital expenditures, working capital and general and administrative expenses. See “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus.

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and which may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future.

The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face, but those that we consider to be material. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also carefully read the section below entitled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements that address future operating performance, events or developments that we expect or anticipate will occur in the future are forward-looking statements, including without limitation, our expectations regarding our ability to execute our commercial strategy, the timeline for regulatory submissions, regulatory steps and potential regulatory approval of our current and future product candidates, the ability to realize the benefits of the license agreement with Dong-A ST Co. Ltd. (“Dong-A”), including the impact on future financial and operating results of NeuroBo; the ability to integrate the product candidates into our business in a timely and cost-efficient manner; the cooperation of our contract manufacturers, clinical study partners and others involved in the development of our current and future product candidates; our ability to initiate clinical trials on a timely basis; our ability to recruit subjects for our clinical trials; costs related to the license agreement, known and unknown, including costs of any litigation or regulatory actions relating to the license agreement; changes in applicable laws or regulations; effects of changes to our stock price on the terms of the license agreement and any future fundraising and other risks and uncertainties described in our filings with the SEC.

Forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations and assumptions about future events, which are inherently subject to uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict. In some instances, you can identify forward-looking statements by words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. In addition, statements that “we believe,” “we expect,” “we anticipate” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus and management believes that these forward-looking statements are reasonable as and when made. However, you should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements because they speak only as of the date when made. We undertake no obligation to update or revise forward-looking statements to reflect changed assumptions, the occurrence of unanticipated events or changes to future operating results or expectations, except as required by law.

Forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual events to adversely differ from the expectations indicated in these forward-looking statements, including without limitation, the risks and uncertainties described in this report. Actual results could differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements. Many factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those in forward-looking

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statements, including those matters discussed below, as well as those listed in the “Risk Factors” section contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

We operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risk factors and uncertainties. We may not actually achieve the plans, projections or expectations disclosed in forward-looking statements, and actual results, developments or events could differ materially from those disclosed in the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including without limitation, the possibility that regulatory authorities do not accept our application or approve the marketing of our products, the possibility we may be unable to raise the funds necessary for the development and commercialization of our products, and those described in our filings with the SEC.

These risks include, among other things, that:

NeuroBo expects to incur losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability;

NeuroBo will need additional financings to fund operations and such additional financings may cause dilution to existing stockholders, restrict NeuroBo’s operations or require NeuroBo to relinquish its technologies;

The timing and costs related to the clinical development of NeuroBo’s products are difficult to predict, and any delays in NeuroBo’s clinical trials may lead to a delay in commercialization;
NeuroBo may be required to make significant payments under the Dong-A License Agreement and other existing license agreements;

The regulatory review and approval processes of the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities are lengthy, time-consuming and inherently unpredictable;

Undesirable side effects in current or future product candidates could delay or prevent their commercialization, limit the commercial profile of an approved label, or result in significant negative consequences following marketing approval, and the development of such product candidates exposes NeuroBo to additional risks;

NeuroBo may engage in future acquisitions, in-licenses of technology, strategic alliances or additional licensing arrangements that could disrupt its business, cause dilution to the organization’s stockholders, harm its financial condition and operating results or result in no benefits being realized from such engagement;

Enrollment and retention of patients in clinical trials is an expensive and time-consuming process and could be made more difficult or rendered impossible by multiple factors outside of NeuroBo’s control;

NeuroBo faces substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than it does;

NeuroBo’s commercial success depends upon attaining significant market acceptance of its product candidates, if approved, among hospitals, physicians, patients and healthcare payors;

Product liability lawsuits against NeuroBo could cause it to incur substantial liabilities and could limit commercialization of any product candidate that it may develop;

NeuroBo relies on third parties to develop NeuroBo’s preclinical studies, clinical trials, research programs and product candidates and to manufacture its product candidates and preclinical and clinical drug supplies. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or meet expected deadlines or if they engage in misconduct or other improper activities or if NeuroBo is unable to engage

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with these third parties, it could have a material adverse effect on NeuroBo’s business and NeuroBo’s obtaining regulatory approval and commercialization of its product candidates;

Any product candidate for which NeuroBo obtains marketing approval could be subject to marketing restrictions or withdrawal from the market, and NeuroBo may be subject to penalties if it fails to comply with regulatory requirements or if it experiences unanticipated problems with these product candidates;

NeuroBo or any of its potential collaborators may never receive regulatory approval to market NeuroBo’s product candidates within or outside of the United States (“U.S.”);

Mechanisms that NeuroBo may utilize to expedite and/or reduce the cost for development or approval of its product candidates may not lead to faster or less expensive development, regulatory review or approval process;

Legislation may increase the difficulty and cost to obtain marketing approval of and commercialize its product candidates, and governments outside the U.S. tend to impose strict price controls, which also may adversely affect NeuroBo’s revenues;

NeuroBo’s compliance with legal standards related to foreign trade could impair its ability to compete in domestic and international markets, and NeuroBo could face criminal liability and other serious consequences for violations;

Certain tax matters, including NeuroBo’s ability to use its NOLs to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations, could impact its results of operations and financial conditions;

Inadequate funding for the FDA and other government agencies could prevent those agencies from performing normal business functions on which the operation of NeuroBo’s business may rely, which could negatively impact NeuroBo’s business;

If NeuroBo is unable to obtain, maintain and protect sufficient intellectual property rights, its competitive position could be harmed;

NeuroBo may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce its intellectual property, which could be expensive, time consuming, unsuccessful and could distract NeuroBo’s personnel from their normal responsibilities;

NeuroBo has identified material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting that could, if not remediated, result in material misstatements in its financial statements or impair its ability to produce accurate and timely consolidated financial statements;

NeuroBo’s obtaining and maintaining patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with certain requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies;

NeuroBo’s business and operations could suffer in the event of system failures or unplanned events;

Any failure, inadequacy, interruption or security lapse of NeuroBo’s information technology could prevent NeuroBo from accessing critical information or expose NeuroBo to liability;

If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about NeuroBo’s business or if they publish negative evaluations the price of NeuroBo’s stock could decline;

NeuroBo does not anticipate declaring or paying, in the foreseeable future, any cash dividends on its capital stock and, consequently, the ability of its stockholders to achieve a return on their investment will depend on appreciation in the price of NeuroBo’s common stock;

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NeuroBo’s bylaws designate the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by NeuroBo’s stockholders, which could limit the ability of NeuroBo’s stockholders to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with NeuroBo or its directors, officers or employees;

Unstable market and economic conditions may have serious adverse consequences on NeuroBo’s business, financial condition and stock price;

The liquidity and trading volume of NeuroBo’s common stock could be low due to concentration of ownership and the market price of its common stock may therefore be highly volatile; and

NeuroBo’s common stock may be delisted from the Nasdaq Capital Market if it fails to comply with the continued listing requirements.

These risks are not exhaustive. Other sections of this prospectus may include additional factors that could harm our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance and achievements may be different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include funding research and development expenses for our clinical and preclinical pipeline, in-licensing or acquiring other products or technologies, working capital and capital expenditures. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds. We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus our intended use for the net proceeds received from the sale of any securities sold pursuant to the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus.

SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

This prospectus contains summary descriptions of the securities we may offer from time to time. These summary descriptions are not meant to be complete descriptions of each security. The particular terms of any securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

General

As of the date of this prospectus, our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue up to 110,000,000 shares of capital stock, all with a par value of $0.001 per share, of which: 100,000,000 shares are designated as common stock and 10,000,000 shares are designated as preferred stock.

The following summary describes the material terms of our capital stock. The description of capital stock is qualified by reference to our third amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, or certificate of incorporation, and our third amended and restated bylaws, as amended, or bylaws.

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Common Stock

As of March 25, 2024, 4,906,032 shares of common stock were outstanding. All outstanding shares of common stock are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid, and nonassessable. All authorized but unissued shares of our common stock are available for issuance by our board of directors without any further stockholder action, except as required by the listing standards of Nasdaq.

Voting Rights

Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. Our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. Accordingly, holders of a majority of the voting shares are able to elect all of the directors. In addition, the affirmative vote of holders of 66-2/3% of the voting power of all of the then outstanding voting stock will be required to take certain actions, including amending certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, such as the provisions relating to amending our amended and restated bylaws, procedures for our stockholder meetings, the classified board, director liability, and amendments requirements of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation.

Dividend Rights

Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then-outstanding preferred stock, holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably those dividends, if any, as may be declared by the board of directors out of legally available funds.

Liquidation, Dissolution or Winding Up

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution, or winding up, the holders of common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of or provision for all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the prior rights of any preferred stock then-outstanding.

Other Rights and Preferences

Holders of common stock have no preemptive or conversion rights or other subscription rights and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. The rights, preferences, and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Registration Rights - Investor Rights Agreement

On September 14, 2022, we entered into an investor rights agreement (the “Investor Rights Agreement”) with Dong-A pursuant to which, Dong-A has the right, subject to the terms thereof, to designate for appointment to the board that number of directors commensurate with Dong-A’s and its affiliates’ beneficial ownership of our common stock, with the number of directors that Dong-A is entitled to designate rounded up to the nearest whole number (the “DA Designees”). To the extent necessary to permit the designation of the DA Designees, the size of the board shall be increased to that number of directors that would permit Dong-A to designate a number of directors to fill the vacancies created thereby that is commensurate with Dong-A’s and its affiliates’ collective beneficial ownership of the common stock outstanding at such time (taking into account any DA Designees already serving on the board at such time). For so long as Dong-A has the right to designate any DA Designee to the board, Dong-A will vote their shares of our common stock in favor of any Company Director (as defined in the Investor Rights Agreement) or any nominee designated by the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee of the board and against the removal of any Company Director, in each case, at any meeting of the stockholders of the company.

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Registration Rights - Registration Rights Agreement

On September 14, 2022, we entered into a registration rights agreement with Dong-A and certain other stockholders (the “Registration Rights Agreement”). The Registration Rights Agreement provides Dong-A with demand and piggyback registration rights, including the right to two long-form registration statements. In addition, we agreed to file a registration statement to register the shares of common stock issuable upon any common stock held by the parties to the Registration Rights Agreement (the “Registrable Securities”) and to use commercially reasonable efforts to cause each registration statement to be declared effective under the Securities Act as promptly as possible after the filing thereof. We also agreed to use our commercially reasonable efforts to keep such registration statement continuously effective under the Securities Act until the date that all Registrable Securities covered by such registration statement have been sold or are otherwise able to be sold pursuant to Rule 144.

Preferred Stock

As of March 25, 2024, no shares of preferred stock were outstanding. Our board of directors may, without further action by our stockholders, fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of up to an aggregate of 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and authorize their issuance. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of any series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of our common stock. The issuance of our preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of our common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of decreasing the market price of our common stock and could also have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change of control or other corporate action.

We will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock of each series we issue under this prospectus, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of preferred stock being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

the title and stated value;

the number of shares we are offering;

the liquidation preference per share;

the purchase price;

the dividend rate, period and payment date and method of calculation for dividends;

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

our right, if any, to defer payment of dividends and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;

the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

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whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or other securities of ours, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and the conversion period;

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and the exchange period;

voting rights, if any;

preemptive rights, if any;

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;

whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

a discussion of material United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

any limitations on the issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the preferred stock.

If we issue and sell shares of preferred stock pursuant to this prospectus, together with any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the shares will be fully paid and non-assessable.

Options and Restricted Stock

As of December 31, 2023, (i) no shares of common stock remain available for issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2019 Plan, and 465,654 shares of common stock remain available for issuance under our 2022 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2022 Plan, (ii) stock options to purchase an aggregate of 1,908 shares of common stock were outstanding under our 2019 Plan and stock options to purchase an aggregate of 2,792 shares of common stock were outstanding under our 2022 Plan, and (iii) 141,361 unvested shares of restricted stock units were outstanding under our 2022 Plan.

Warrants

As of December 31, 2023, 203,914 shares of common stock were issuable for outstanding warrants.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could make it more difficult to complete an acquisition of us by means of a tender offer, a proxy contest or otherwise or the removal and replacement of our incumbent officers and directors.

Removal of Directors; Board Vacancies; Board Size

Our certificate of incorporation provides for the removal of any of our directors only for cause and requires a stockholder vote of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock. In addition, our certificate of incorporation provides that any vacancy occurring on our board of directors may be filled by a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum, unless the board of directors determines that such vacancy shall be filled by the stockholders. Finally, the authorized number of directors may be changed only by a resolution of the

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board of directors. This system of removing directors, filling vacancies and fixing the size of the board makes it more difficult for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors.

Classes

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that the board of directors be divided into three classes of directors, as nearly equal in number as possible, with each class serving a staggered three-year term. The classification system of electing directors may tend to discourage a third-party from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us since the classification of the board of directors generally increases the difficulty of replacing a majority of directors.

Special Stockholder Meetings

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors or by the chair of the board.

Stockholder Advance Notice Procedure 

Our bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholders to make nominations of candidates for election as directors or to bring other business before an annual meeting of our stockholders. The bylaws provide that any stockholder wishing to nominate persons for election as directors at, or bring other business before, an annual meeting must deliver to our secretary a written notice of the stockholder’s intention to do so. To be timely, the stockholder’s notice must be delivered to or mailed and received by us not more than 120 days, and not less than 90 days before the anniversary date of the preceding annual meeting, except that if the annual meeting is set for a date that is not within 30 days before or 30 days after such anniversary date, we must receive the notice not earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to the annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of (i) the 90th day prior to the annual meeting or (ii) the 10th day following the day on which we first made public announcement of the date of meeting. The notice must include the following information:

as to director nominations all information relating to each director nominee that is required by the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission to be disclosed in solicitations of  proxies, or is otherwise required by Section 14 of the Exchange Act, including Regulation 14A and Rule 14a-19, and a description of all Derivative Transactions (as defined in the bylaws) by each nominee during the previous twelve month period;

as to any other business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting, a reasonably brief description of the business to be proposed, the text of the proposal, the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting and, if any, and the stockholder’s material interest in the proposed business; and

as to the stockholder who intends to make the nomination (the “Notifying Stockholder”), (i) the name and address of the Notifying Stockholder, (ii) the class, series and number of our securities that Notifying Stockholder beneficially owns of record and (iii) a description of any participants, associates, family members living in the same household and any person or entity who is a member of a group with the Notifying Stockholder.

Undesignated Preferred Stock

The ability to authorize undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could have the effect of delaying, deferring, preventing or otherwise impeding any attempt to change control of us.

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Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute

The company is subject to Section 203 (“Section 203”) of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”). Section 203 generally prohibits a public Delaware corporation such as us from engaging in a "business combination" with an "interested stockholder" for a period of three years following the time that the stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless:

prior to the time the stockholder became an interested stockholder, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the number of shares outstanding (a) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (b) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

at or subsequent to the time the stockholder became an interested stockholder, the business combination is approved by the board and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Section 203 defines a business combination to include:

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

any sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, pledge, transfer or other disposition (in one transaction or a series of transactions) involving the interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation (or its majority-owned subsidiary);

subject to exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

subject to exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect, directly or indirectly, of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; and

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit, directly or indirectly (except proportionately as a stockholder of such corporation), of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits, other than certain benefits set forth in Section 203, provided by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person that is an affiliate or associate of such entity or person.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Equiniti Trust Company, LLC.

Listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “NRBO.”

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we are referring to the base indenture, as well as any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of base indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and any supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

General

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

the title of the series of debt securities;

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

the maturity date or dates on which the principal of the debt securities of the series is payable;

the form of the debt securities of the series;

the applicability of any guarantees;

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

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whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities;

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities; and the depositary for such global security or securities;

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange, which may, without limitation, include the payment of cash as well as delivery of securities;

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

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additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any, and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Events of Default under the Indenture

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the

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terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request;

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

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the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request;

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities-Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities-General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee;

to comply with the applicable procedures if the depositary; or

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

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In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

Discharge

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

provide for payment;

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

maintain paying agencies;

hold monies for payment in trust;

recover excess money held by the trustee;

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

appoint any successor trustee.

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book-entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

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Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

Information Concerning the Trustee

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

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Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is applicable.

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplement and free writing prospectus, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be offered independently or in combination with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The following description of warrants will apply to the warrants offered by this prospectus unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement for a particular series of warrants may specify different or additional terms.

We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the warrants are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectus, and the complete form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements, that contain the terms of the warrants.

General

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants being offered, including:

the title of such securities;

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

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the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations of holding or exercising the warrants;

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture; or

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. The warrants may be exercised as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, warrants may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered thereby. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent in connection with the exercise of the warrant.

Upon receipt of payment and the warrant or warrant certificate, as applicable, properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office, including ours, indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If less than all of the warrants (or the warrants represented by such warrant certificate) are exercised, a new warrant or a new warrant certificate, as applicable, will be issued for the remaining warrants.

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Governing Law

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and warrant agreements, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the warrants or warrant agreements, will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

Each warrant agent, if any, will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

We may issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee, depositary or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

Book-Entry Holders

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Securities issued in global form will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for securities issued in global form, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

Street Name Holders

We may terminate a global security or issue securities in non-global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

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For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any applicable trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

Legal Holders

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee and of any third parties employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the legal holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that legal holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the legal holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of the indenture or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.

Special Considerations For Indirect Holders

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

how it handles securities payments and notices;

whether it imposes fees or charges;

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

Global Securities

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, DTC will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

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A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued in global form only, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

Special Considerations for Global Securities

The rights of an indirect holder relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

If securities are issued only in the form of a global security, an investor should be aware of the following:

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;

an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank, broker or other financial institution for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in a global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in a global security;

we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in a global security, nor do we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in a global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your bank, broker or other financial institution may require you to do so as well; and

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in a global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

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Special Situations when a Global Security will be Terminated

In a few special situations described below, the global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks, brokers or other financial institutions to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own name, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and not we or any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities covered hereby from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades, or a combination of these methods, or through any other methods described in a prospectus supplement. We may sell the securities to or through one or more underwriters or dealers (acting as principal or agent), through agents, directly to one or more purchasers, or as otherwise described in a prospectus supplement. We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

at negotiated prices.

We may also sell equity securities covered by this registration statement in an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act. Such offering may be made into an existing trading market for such securities in transactions at other than a fixed price, either:

on or through the facilities of the Nasdaq Capital Market or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale; and/or

to or through a market maker other than on the Nasdaq Capital Market or such other securities exchanges or quotation or trading services.

Such “at-the-market offerings”, if any, may be conducted by underwriters acting as principal or agent.

A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

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the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents, if any;

the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

any options pursuant to which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

any public offering price;

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement will be underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement. Dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and compensation received by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts. If such dealers or agents were deemed to be underwriters, they may be subject to statutory liabilities under the Securities Act.

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement, other than securities covered by any option to purchase additional securities or other option. If a dealer is used in the sale of securities, we or an underwriter will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale. To the extent required, we will set forth in the prospectus supplement the name of the dealer and the terms of the transaction. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time.

We may use underwriters, dealers or agents with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, dealer or agent the nature of any such relationship.

We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities, and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

We may authorize agents, underwriters or dealers to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

We may provide agents, underwriters and dealers with indemnification against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents, underwriters or dealers may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents, underwriters, dealers or their affiliates may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

All securities we may offer, other than common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any agents or underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities. There is currently no market for any of the offered securities, other than our common stock which is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market. We have no current plans for listing of the debt securities, preferred

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stock or warrants on any securities exchange or quotation system; any such listing with respect to any particular debt securities, preferred stock or warrants will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement or other offering materials, as the case may be.

Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act. Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which creates a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum price. Short-covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time. These transactions may be effected on any exchange or over-the-counter market or otherwise.

Any agents and underwriters who are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Capital Market may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities on the Nasdaq Capital Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

LEGAL MATTERS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon for us by Honigman LLP, Kalamazoo, Michigan. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of NeuroBo Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 and for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2023 incorporated by reference in this Prospectus and in the Registration Statement have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of BDO USA, P.C., an independent registered public accounting firm,  given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting. The report on the consolidated financial statements contains an explanatory paragraph regarding the Company's ability to continue as a going concern.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. Neither we nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

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We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including NeuroBo. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.

We maintain a website at www.neurobopharma.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents instead of having to repeat the information in this prospectus. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings (including those made after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to the effectiveness of such registration statement) we will make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act until the termination of the offering of the shares covered by this prospectus (other than information furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K):

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, filed with the SEC on March 28, 2024; and

the description of our securities in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on June 20, 2016, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description, including Exhibit 4.12 to the registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, filed on March 30, 2023.

We will furnish without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference, including exhibits to these documents. You may request a copy of these documents by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

NeuroBo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

545 Concord Avenue, Suite 210

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138

(857) 702-9600

Attn: Hyung Heon Kim,

President and Chief Executive Officer

DISCLOSURE OF COMMISSION’S POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION FOR

SECURITIES ACT LIABILITY

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling the company pursuant to the DGCL, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

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Graphic

$150,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

______________________________________________________________________

PROSPECTUS

______________________________________________________________________

, 2024


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The following table sets forth the estimated costs and expenses, other than the underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by us, in connection with the offering of the securities pursuant to this registration statement:

SEC registration fee

 

$

7,303

FINRA filing fee

 

$

23,000

Accounting fees and expenses

 

 

*

 

Legal fees and expenses

 

 

*

 

Transfer agent fees and expenses

 

 

*

 

Trustee fees and expenses

 

 

*

 

Printing and miscellaneous expenses

 

 

*

 

Total

 

$

*

 

* These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Delaware General Corporation Law

Section 145(a) of the DGCL provides that a corporation may indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the corporation) by reason of the fact that the person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe the person’s conduct was unlawful. The termination of any action, suit or proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had reasonable cause to believe that the person’s conduct was unlawful.

Section 145(b) of the DGCL states that a corporation may indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that the person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation and except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which the person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Delaware Court of Chancery or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, the person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses as the Delaware Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

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Section 145(c) of the DGCL provides that to the extent that a present or former director or officer of a corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in subsections (a) and (b) of Section 145, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith.

Section 145(d) of the DGCL states that any indemnification under subsections (a) and (b) of Section 145 (unless ordered by a court) shall be made by the corporation only as authorized in the specific case upon a determination that indemnification of the present or former director, officer, employee or agent is proper in the circumstances because the person has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in subsections (a) and (b) of Section 145. Such determination shall be made with respect to a person who is a director or officer at the time of such determination (i) by a majority vote of the directors who are not parties to such action, suit or proceeding, even though less than a quorum, (ii) by a committee of such directors designated by majority vote of such directors, even though less than a quorum, (iii) if there are no such directors, or if such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion or (iv) by the stockholders.

 Section 145(f) of the DGCL states that the indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, the other subsections of Section 145 shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under any bylaw, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in such person’s official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office.

Section 145(g) of the DGCL provides that a corporation shall have the power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity or arising out of such person’s status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such liability under the provisions of Section 145.

Section 145(j) of the DGCL states that the indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, Section 145 shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or agent and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.

Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

We have adopted provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws that provide for indemnification of our officers and directors to the maximum extent permitted under the DGCL. As authorized by the DGCL, our certificate of incorporation limits the liability of our directors for monetary damages for a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except where the director breached his or her duty of loyalty, failed to act in good faith, engaged in intentional misconduct or knowingly violated a law, authorized the payment of a dividend or approved a stock repurchase in violation of Delaware corporate law or obtained an improper personal benefit.

Indemnification Agreements

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our current directors and officers. These agreements will require us to indemnify these individuals to the fullest extent permitted under Delaware law against liabilities that may arise by reason of their service to us, and to advance expenses incurred as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified.

Insurance Policy

We have purchased an insurance policy that purports to insure our officers and directors against certain liabilities incurred by them in the discharge of their functions as such officers and directors.

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The foregoing summaries are not intended to be exhaustive and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the complete text of the statute, the company’s certificate of incorporation and the agreements referred to above and are qualified in their entirety by reference thereto.

Item 16. Exhibits.

Exhibit

Number

 

Description

1.1*

 

Form of Underwriting Agreement.

 

 

2.1

Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of December 31, 2020, by and among the Registrant, Shelby Merger Sub 1, Inc., Shelby Merger Sub 2, LLC, ANA Therapeutics, Inc. and Akash Bakshi (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 2.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed on January 6, 2021).

3.1

 

Third Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K, filed on August 10, 2016).

 

3.2

Certificate of Amendment (Reverse Stock Split) to the Third Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Company (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K, filed on December 31, 2019).

3.3

Certificate of Amendment (Name Change) to the Third Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Company (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K, filed on December 31, 2019).

3.4

Certificate of Amendment (Reverse Stock Split) to the Third Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Company (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant's Current Report on Form 8-K, filed on September 12, 2022).

3.5

Certificate of Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation of NeuroBo Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on December 19, 2023).

3.6

 

Third Amended and Restated Bylaws of Registrant.

4.1

 

Form of Common Stock Certificate of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant's Amendment No. 1 to Registration Statement on Form S-1, filed on June 13, 2016).

 

 

4.2*

Form of Preferred Stock Certificate and Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock.

 

4.3

Form of Indenture.

 

4.4*

Form of Debt Securities.

 

4.5

Form of Common Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.

4.6

Form of Preferred Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.

4.7

Form of Debt Securities Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.

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4.8

Registration Rights Agreement, dated September 14, 2022, by and among Dong-A ST Co., Ltd., The E&Healthcare Investment Fund II, The E&Healthcare Investment Fund No. 6, The E&Healthcare Investment Fund No. 7 and the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.4 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed on September 14, 2022).

4.9

Investor Rights Agreement, dated September 14, 2022, by and between Dong-A ST Co. Ltd. and the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.5 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, as filed on September 14, 2022).

5.1

Opinion of Honigman LLP.

 

 

 

23.1

Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.

 

 

 

23.2

Consent of Honigman LLP (reference is made to Exhibit 5.1).

 

 

 

24.1

Power of Attorney (included on signature page).

 

 

 

25.1*+

Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Indenture.

 

107

Filing Fee Table.

 

 

 

 

*

To be filed by amendment or by a report filed under the Exchange Act and incorporated herein by reference, if applicable.

+

To be filed separately under electronic form type in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, and the applicable rules thereunder, if applicable.

Item 17.

Undertakings.

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i)

To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

(ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that the undertakings set forth in paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the registration statement is on Form S-3 and the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement or are contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.

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(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

(i)

Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(ii)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser: (i) any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424; (ii) any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant; (iii) the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and (iv) any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(7) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, (i) the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(l) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be a part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and (ii) each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

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(8) To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the city of Cambridge, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, on April 12, 2024.

 

NeuroBo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

 

 

 

 

By:

/s/ Hyung Heon Kim​ ​​ ​​ ​

Hyung Heon Kim

President and Chief Executive Officer

 

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Hyung Heon Kim and Marshall H. Woodworth, and each of them, as his true and lawful agent, proxy and attorney-in-fact, each acting alone, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to (i) act on, sign, and file with the SEC any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement together with all schedules and exhibits thereto, (ii) act on, sign and file such certificates, instruments, agreements and other documents as may be necessary or appropriate in connection therewith, (iii) act on and file any supplement to any prospectus included in this registration statement or any such amendment or any subsequent registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, and (iv) take any and all actions which may be necessary or appropriate to be done, as fully for all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby approving, ratifying and confirming all that such agent, proxy and attorney-in-fact or any of his substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue thereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated:

Signature

Title

Date

/s/ Hyung Heon Kim

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

(Principal Executive Officer)

April 12, 2024

Hyung Heon Kim

 

 

 

/s/ Marshall H. Woodworth

Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Office)

April 12, 2024

Marshall H. Woodworth

 

 

 

/s/ Mark A. Glickman

Director

April 12, 2024

Mark A. Glickman

 

 

 

/s/ Jason L. Groves

Director

April 12, 2024

Jason L. Groves

 

 

 

/s/ Andrew I. Koven

Chair of the Board

April 12, 2024

Andrew I. Koven

 

 

 

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Signature

Title

Date

/s/ Michael Salsbury

Director

April 12, 2024

Michael Salsbury

 

 

 

/s/ D. Gordon Strickland

Director

April 12, 2024

D. Gordon Strickland

 

 

 

/s/ James P. Tursi

Director

April 12, 2024

James P. Tursi

 

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Exhibit 3.6

THIRD AMENDED AND RESTATED
BYLAWS
OF
NEUROBO PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

ARTICLE I
OFFICES
Section 1. REGISTERED OFFICE. The registered office of the corporation shall be fixed in the Certificate of Incorporation, as amended (the “Certificate of Incorporation”).
Section 2.OTHER OFFICES. The corporation shall also have and maintain an office or principal place of business at such place as may be fixed by the corporation’s board of directors (the “Board of Directors”), and may also have offices at such other places, both within and outside of the State of Delaware as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine or the business of the corporation may require.
ARTICLE II
CORPORATE SEAL
Section 3. CORPORATE SEAL. The Board of Directors may adopt a corporate seal. If adopted, the corporate seal shall consist of a die bearing the name of the corporation and the inscription, “Corporate Seal-Delaware.” Said seal may be used by causing it, a facsimile, or other electronic means thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise.
ARTICLE III
STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS
Section 4. PLACE OF MEETINGS. Meetings of the stockholders of the corporation may be held at such place, either within or outside of the State of Delaware, as may be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that the meeting shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as provided under the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”), or that stockholders not physically present at a meeting of stockholders may, by means of remote communication, participate in the meeting and be deemed to be present in person and vote at the meeting, whether such meeting is to be held at a designated place or solely by means of remote communication, subject to such guidelines and procedures as the Board of Directors may adopt in accordance with the requirements of applicable law and the DGCL.
Section 5.ANNUAL MEETINGS.
(a)The annual meeting of the stockholders of the corporation, for the purpose of election of directors and for such other business as shall properly come before it in accordance with these Third Amended and Restated Bylaws (the “Bylaws”), shall be held on such date and at such time as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors. Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors of the corporation and the proposal of business to be considered by the stockholders may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders: (i) pursuant to the corporation’s notice of meeting of stockholders (with respect to business other than nominations); (ii) brought specifically by or at the direction of the Board of Directors; or (iii) by any stockholder of the corporation who was a stockholder of record at the time of giving the stockholder’s notice provided for in Section 5(b) below, at the record date for the meeting and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who complied with the notice procedures and other provisions and requirements set forth in this Section 5 (a “Notifying Stockholder”). For the avoidance of doubt, clause (iii) above shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations and submit other business (other than matters properly included in the corporation’s notice of meeting of stockholders and proxy statement under Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “1934 Act”)) before an annual meeting of stockholders.
(b)At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as is a proper matter for stockholder action under the DGCL and as shall have been properly brought before the meeting.

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(i)For nominations for the election to the Board of Directors to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a Notifying Stockholder pursuant to clause (iii) of Section 5(a), the Notifying Stockholder must deliver written notice to the Secretary of the corporation at the principal executive offices of the corporation on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(b)(iii) and must update and supplement such written notice on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(c). Such Notifying Stockholder’s notice shall set forth: (A) as to each nominee such Notifying Stockholder proposes to nominate at the meeting: (1) the name, age, business address and residence address of such nominee; (2) the principal occupation or employment of such nominee and a description of the qualifications and business or professional experience of each proposed nominee; (3) a description of any position of such nominee as an executive officer or director of any principal competitor (as defined below) of the corporation within the three years preceding the submission of the notice; (4) the class and number of shares of each class of capital stock or other securities of the corporation which are owned of record and beneficially by such nominee; (5) the date or dates on which such securities were acquired and the investment intent of such acquisition; (6) a description of all Derivative Transactions (as defined below) by each nominee during the previous twelve month period, including the date of the transactions and the class, series and number of securities involved in, and the material economic terms of, such Derivative Transactions; (7) a description of any business or personal interests that could place such nominee in a potential conflict of interest with the Corporation or any of its subsidiaries; (8) a written representation and agreement, in the form provided by the Secretary upon written request of the Notifying Stockholder, which shall include the representations and agreements described in Section 5(e), within five business days of such written request, that such nominee (I) if elected, intends to tender promptly following such person’s failure to receive the required vote for election or re-election at the next meeting at which such person would face election or re-election, an irrevocable resignation effective upon acceptance of such resignation by the Board of Directors, (II) agrees to be named as a nominee in a proxy statement and proxy card relating to such meeting of stockholders, (III) agrees to serve as a director for the full term for which such person is standing for election, if elected, (IV) would be in compliance with and will comply with all of the corporation’s publicly-available corporate governance, policies and guidelines applicable to directors, and (V) agrees to comply with all applicable rules or regulations of any stock exchange applicable to the corporation; and (9) such other information concerning such nominee as would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement soliciting proxies for the election of such nominee as a director in an election contest (even if an election contest is not involved), or that is otherwise required to be disclosed pursuant to Section 14 of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder including, without limitation, Regulation 14A and Rule 14a-19, and such nominee’s written consent to the corporation’s public disclosure of the foregoing; and (B) the information required by Section 5(b)(iv). Such notice must be accompanied by the completed and signed written questionnaire with respect to the background and qualifications of such nominee in accordance with Section 5(e) (which questionnaire shall be in the form provided by the Secretary of the corporation upon written request within five business days of such request). The corporation may require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information as it may reasonably require to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as an independent director of the corporation under the listing standards of the principal U.S. exchange upon which the corporation’s capital stock is listed, any applicable rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission and publicly disclosed standards, if any, used by the Board of Directors in determining the independence of the corporation’s directors or that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence, or lack thereof, of such proposed nominee. In addition, the Board of Directors may require any proposed nominee to submit to interviews with the Board of Directors or any committee thereof, and such nominee will make themselves available for any such interviews within ten (10) days following any reasonable request therefor from the Board of Directors or any committee thereof.
(ii) Other than proposals sought to be included in the corporation’s proxy materials pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the 1934 Act, for business other than nominations for the election to the Board of Directors to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (iii) of Section 5(a), the Notifying Stockholder must deliver written notice to the Secretary of the corporation at the principal executive offices of the corporation on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(b)(iii), and must update and supplement such written notice on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(c). Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth: (A) as to each matter such stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting, a reasonably brief description of the business desired to be brought before the meeting, the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting, the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend these Bylaws, the Certificate of Incorporation or any other instrument or document, the language of the proposed amendment), and any material interest including any anticipated benefit of such business to any Proponent other than solely as a result of its ownership of the corporation’s capital stock, that is material to any Proponent individually, or to the Proponents in the aggregate; and (B) the information required by Section 5(b)(iv).

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(iii) To be timely, the written notice required by Section 5(b)(i) or Section 5(b)(ii) must be received by the Secretary of the corporation at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than the close of business on the 90th day nor earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that, subject to the last sentence of this Section 5(b)(iii), in the event that the date of the annual meeting is advanced more than 30 days prior to or delayed by more than 30 days after the anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, notice by the Notifying Stockholder to be timely must be so received no earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such annual meeting or the close of business on the 10th day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made. In no event shall an adjournment, recess, judicial stay, rescheduling or postponement of an annual meeting for which notice has been given, or the public announcement thereof has been made, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above. The number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at a meeting of the stockholders shall not exceed the number of directors to be elected at such meeting.
(iv)The written notice required by Section 5(b)(i) or Section 5(b)(ii) shall also set forth, as of the date of the notice and as to the Notifying Stockholder and the beneficial owner, if any, and any person or entity acting in concert with the Notifying Stockholder, or on whose behalf the nomination or proposal is made (each, a “Proponent” and collectively, the “Proponents”): (A) the name and address of each Proponent, including, if applicable, their name and address as they appear on the corporation’s books, if different; (B) the class, series and number of shares of each class of capital stock or other securities of the corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned beneficially and of record by each Proponent (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the 1934 Act, except that beneficially owned shall include any shares of stock or other securities of the corporation as to which a person has a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future); (C) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding (whether oral or in writing) with respect to such nomination or proposal between or among any Proponent and any of its affiliates or associates, and any others (including their names) acting in concert, or otherwise under the agreement, arrangement or understanding, with any of the foregoing; (D) a representation that the Proponents are holders of record or beneficial owners, as the case may be, of shares of the corporation entitled to vote at the meeting and intend to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to nominate the person or persons specified in the notice (with respect to a notice under Section 5(b)(i)) or to propose the business that is specified in the notice (with respect to a notice under Section 5(b)(ii)); (E) a representation as to whether the Proponents or any of them intend to, or are a part of a group that intends to, (I) deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to at least the number of holders of the corporation’s voting shares reasonably believed by the Proponents to be sufficient to approve or adopt the business to be proposed or to elect such nominee or nominees, as applicable, and, if required by Rule 14a-19 under the 1934 Act (or a successor rule), to solicit proxies in support of director nominees other than the corporation’s nominees in accordance with Rule 14a-19 under the 1934 Act (or a successor rule), (II) engage in a solicitation (within the meaning of Rule 14a-1(l) under the 1934 Act) with respect to the nomination, or other business, as applicable, and if so, the name of each participant (as defined in Item 4 of Schedule 14A under the 1934 Act) in such solicitation, or (III) otherwise to solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such nomination;  (F) to the extent known by any Proponent, the name and address of any other stockholder providing financial support or meaningful assistance in furtherance of the proposal or the nomination, as applicable, on the date of the Notifying Stockholder’s notice; (G) a description of all Derivative Transactions (as defined below) by each Proponent during the previous 12-month period, including the date of the transactions and the class, series and number of securities involved in, and the material economic terms of, such Derivative Transactions; (H) any other information relating to the Proponents, if any, that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for, as applicable, the proposal and/or for the election of directors in an contested election pursuant to Section 14 of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder; (I) any material interest of the Proponents in the proposed business and/or the election of directors described in the notice; and (J) a description of any “participants” (as such term is used in Rule 13d-5 under the 1934 Act, or any successor rule), any associates, family members living in the same household of the Notifying Stockholder and any person or entity who is a member of a “group” (as such term is used in Rule 13d-5 under the 1934 Act, or any successor rule) with the Notifying Stockholder.
(c)A Notifying Stockholder providing written notice required by Section 5(b)(i) or Section 5(b)(ii) shall (A) update and supplement such notice in writing, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice is true and correct in all material respects as of (i) the record date for the meeting and (ii) the date that is five business days prior to the meeting and, in the event of any adjournment or postponement

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thereof, five business days prior to such adjourned or postponed meeting; and (B) if a Notifying Stockholder has provided notice pursuant to Section 5(b)(i), notify the corporation if (i) the Notifying Stockholder no longer intends to solicit proxies in support of director nominees other than the corporation’s nominees in accordance with Rule 14a-19 under the 1934 Act (or a successor rule) or (ii) the Notifying Stockholder fails to comply with the requirements of Rule 14a-19 under the 1934 Act (or a successor rule)  or any other rule or regulation thereunder (such Notifying Stockholder or a related Proponent shall promptly notify the corporation of such failure), including the provision to the corporation of notices required thereunder in a timely manner, or fail to timely provide reasonable evidence sufficient to satisfy the corporation that the Notifying Stockholder has met the requirements of Rule 14a-19(a)(3) under the 1934 Act (or a successor rule) pursuant to the second following sentence; if any of the events described in this clause (B) occur or the related notices are provided, then the corporation shall disregard any proxies or votes solicited for such proposed nominee, the nomination of such proposed nominee will be disregarded and no vote on the election of such proposed nominee will occur (notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such proposed nominee may have been received by the corporation). In the case of an update and supplement pursuant to clause (A)(i) of this Section 5(c), such update and supplement shall be received by the Secretary of the corporation at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than five business days after the record date for the meeting. In the case of an update and supplement pursuant to clause (A)(ii) of this Section 5(c), such update and supplement shall be received by the Secretary of the corporation at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than two business days prior to the date for the meeting, and, in the event of any adjournment or postponement thereof, two business days prior to such adjourned or postponed meeting. If any Notifying Stockholder provides notice pursuant to Rule 14a-19 under the 1934 Act (or a successor rule), such Notifying Stockholder or a related Proponent will deliver to the Secretary, no later than five (5) business days prior to the applicable meeting date, reasonable evidence that the requirements of Rule 14a-19(a)(3) under the 1934 Act (or a successor rule) have been satisfied.
(d)Notwithstanding anything in Section 5(b)(iii) to the contrary, in the event that the number of directors in an Expiring Class (as defined below) is increased and there is no public announcement of the appointment of a director to such class, or, if no appointment was made, of the vacancy in such class, made by the corporation at least 10 days before the last day a stockholder may deliver a notice of nomination in accordance with Section 5(b)(iii), a stockholder’s notice required by this Section 5 and which complies with the requirements in Section 5(b)(i), other than the timing requirements in Section 5(b)(iii), shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for any new positions in such Expiring Class created by such increase, if it shall be received by the Secretary of the corporation at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than the close of business on the 10th day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the corporation.

(e)A person shall not be eligible for election or re-election as a director unless the person (A) is nominated in accordance with clause (ii) of Section 5(a), or (B) is nominated in accordance with clause (iii) of Section 5(a) and has delivered to the Secretary a completed and signed written questionnaire with respect to the background and qualification of such proposed nominee and the background of any other person or entity on whose behalf the nomination is being made (which questionnaire shall be in the form provided by the Secretary upon written request) and a written representation and agreement (in the form provided by the Secretary of the corporation upon written request) that such person: (i) is not and will not become a party to (A) any agreement, arrangement or understanding with, and has not given any commitment or assurance to, any person or entity as to how such person, if elected as a director of the corporation, will act or vote on any issue or question (a “Voting Commitment”) that has not been disclosed to the corporation in the questionnaire or (B) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such person’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the corporation, with such person’s fiduciary duties under applicable law; (ii) is not and will not become a party to any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the corporation with respect to any direct or indirect compensation, reimbursement or indemnification in connection with service or action as a director of the corporation that has not been disclosed to the corporation in such representation and agreement, (iii) in such person’s individual capacity and on behalf of any person or entity on whose behalf the nomination is being made, would be in compliance, if elected as a director of the corporation, and will comply with, all applicable publicly disclosed corporate governance, conflict of interest, confidentiality, Regulation FD, code of conduct and ethics, and stock ownership and trading policies and guidelines of the corporation, and (iv) will make such other acknowledgments, enter into such agreements and provide such information as the Board of Directors requires of all directors, including promptly submitting all completed and signed questionnaires required of the corporation’s directors. Except as otherwise required by law, the chairperson of the meeting shall have the power and duty to determine whether a nomination or any business proposed to be brought before the meeting was made, or proposed, as the case may be, in accordance with the procedures set forth in these

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Bylaws and, if any proposed nomination or business is not in compliance with these Bylaws, or the Notifying Stockholder and its related Proponents do not act in accordance with the representations required in these Bylaws, including those in Section 5(b)(iv)(D) and Section 5(b)(iv)(E), and Rule 14a-19 under the 1934 Act (or a successor rule), to declare that such proposal or nomination shall not be presented for stockholder action at the meeting and shall be disregarded and that such proposed business shall not be considered or transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such nominations or such business may have been solicited or received by the corporation.
(f)Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 5, in order to include information with respect to a stockholder proposal in the proxy statement and form of proxy for a stockholders’ meeting, a stockholder must also comply with all applicable requirements of state and federal law, including the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, the Certificate of Incorporation and these Bylaws. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 5, unless otherwise required by law, no stockholder shall solicit proxies in support of director nominees other than the corporation’s nominees unless such stockholder has complied with Rule 14a-19 (or a successor rule) under the 1934 Act in connection with the solicitation of such proxies, including the provision to the corporation of notices required thereunder in a timely manner. Nothing in these Bylaws shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the 1934 Act; provided, however, that any references in these Bylaws to the 1934 Act or the rules and regulations thereunder are not intended to and shall not limit the requirements applicable to proposals and/or nominations to be considered pursuant to Section 5(a)(iii).
(g)For purposes of Section 5 and Section 6,
(i)“affiliates” and “associates” shall have the meanings set forth in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(ii)“Derivative Transaction” shall mean any agreement, arrangement, interest or understanding entered into by, or on behalf or for the benefit of, any Proponent or any nominee, as applicable, whether record or beneficial:
(1)the value of which is derived in whole or in part from the value of any class or series of shares or other securities of the corporation;
(2)which otherwise provides any direct or indirect opportunity to gain or share in any gain derived from a change in the value of securities of the corporation;
(3)the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss, manage risk or benefit of security value or price changes; or
(4)which provides the right to vote or increase or decrease the voting power of, such Proponent or nominee, as applicable, or any of its affiliates or associates, with respect to any securities of the corporation,

which agreement, arrangement, contract, interest or understanding may include, without limitation, any option, warrant, debt position, note, bond, convertible security, swap, stock appreciation right, short position, repurchase, profit interest, hedge, right to dividends, voting agreement, performance-related fee or arrangement to borrow or lend shares (whether or not subject to payment, settlement, exercise or conversion in any such class or series), and any proportionate interest of such Proponent or nominee, as applicable, in the securities of the corporation held by any general or limited partnership, or any limited liability company, of which such Proponent or nominee, as applicable is, directly or indirectly, a general partner or managing member.

(iii)“Expiring Class” shall mean a class of directors whose term shall expire at the next annual meeting of stockholders.

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(iv)“principal competitor” shall mean any entity that develops or provides products or services that compete with or are alternatives to the principal products developed or produced or services provided by the corporation or its affiliates.
(v)“public announcement” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the 1934 Act.
Section 6.SPECIAL MEETINGS.
(a)Special meetings of the stockholders of the corporation may be called, for any purpose as is a proper matter for stockholder action under the DGCL, by (i) the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, (ii) the Chief Executive Officer, or (iii) the Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors (whether or not there exist any vacancies in previously authorized directorships at the time any such resolution is presented to the Board of Directors for adoption).
(b)The Board of Directors shall determine the date, time and place, if any, of such special meeting. Upon determination of the date, time and place, if any, of the meeting, the Secretary of the corporation shall cause a notice of meeting to be given to the stockholders entitled to vote, in accordance with the provisions of Section 7. No business may be transacted at such special meeting other than as specified in the corporation’s notice of meeting.
(c)Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may only be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected pursuant to the corporation’s notice of meeting (i) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (ii) by one or more stockholders of the corporation, holding shares in the aggregate entitled to cast not less than 10% of the votes at that meeting, who are stockholders of record at the time of giving notice provided for in this paragraph, at the record date for the meeting and at the time of the meeting, who shall be entitled to vote at the meeting and shall deliver written notice to the Secretary of the corporation setting forth the information required by Section 5(b)(i) and Section 5(b)(iv), and otherwise comply with the procedures and other requirements of this Section 6. In the event the corporation calls a special meeting of stockholders for the purpose of electing one or more directors to the Board of Directors, any such stockholder of record may nominate a person or persons (as the case may be), for election to such position(s) as specified in the corporation’s notice of meeting, if written notice setting forth the information required by Section 5(b)(i) shall be received by the Secretary of the corporation at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such meeting or the 10th day following the day on which public announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the Board of Directors to be elected at such meeting. The stockholder shall also update and supplement such information as required under Section 5(c). In no event shall an adjournment, recess, judicial stay, rescheduling or postponement of a special meeting for which notice has been given, or the public announcement thereof has been made, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above. The number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at a special meeting of the stockholders shall not exceed the number of directors to be elected at such meeting. If the corporation shall subsequently increase the number of directors subject to election at the applicable meeting, such notice as to any additional nominees shall be due on the later of (x) the conclusion of the time period provided for in this subsection (c) above or (y) the tenth (10th) day following the date of public announcement of such increase.
(d)Except as otherwise required by law, the chairperson of the meeting shall have the power and duty to determine whether a nomination was made in accordance with the procedures set forth in these Bylaws and, if any proposed nomination is not in compliance with these Bylaws, or the Notifying Stockholder does not act in accordance with the representations required in these Bylaws, including those in Section 5(b)(iv)(D) and Section 5(b)(iv)(E), and Rule 14a-19 (or a successor rule) under the 1934 Act, to declare that such nomination shall not be presented for stockholder action at the special meeting and shall be disregarded, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such nominations may have been solicited or received.
(e)Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 6, a Notifying Stockholder must also comply with all applicable requirements of the state and federal law, including the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, the Certificate of Incorporation and these Bylaws, with respect to matters set forth in this Section 6. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6, unless otherwise required by law, no Notifying

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Stockholder or related Proponent shall solicit proxies in support of director nominees other than the corporation’s nominees unless such Notifying Stockholder and its related Proponent(s) have complied with Rule 14a-19 (or a successor rule) under the 1934 Act in connection with the solicitation of such proxies, including the provision to the corporation of notices required thereunder in a timely manner. Nothing in these Bylaws shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the 1934 Act; provided, however, that any references in these Bylaws to the 1934 Act or the rules and regulations thereunder are not intended to and shall not limit the requirements applicable to nominations for the election to the Board of Directors to be considered pursuant to Section 6(c).
Section 7.NOTICE OF MEETINGS. Except as otherwise provided by law, notice, given in writing or by electronic transmission, of each meeting of stockholders shall be given not less than 10 nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting, such notice to specify the place, if any, date and hour, in the case of special meetings, the purpose or purposes of the meeting, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at any such meeting and the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, if such date is different from the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting. If mailed, notice is deemed given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the corporation. If sent via electronic transmission, notice is deemed given as of the sending time recorded at the time of transmission. Notice of the time, place, if any, and purpose of any meeting of stockholders may be waived in writing, signed by the person entitled to notice thereof, or by electronic transmission by such person, either before or after such meeting, and will be waived by any stockholder by such person’s attendance thereat in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or by proxy, except when the stockholder attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Any stockholder so waiving notice of such meeting shall be bound by the proceedings of any such meeting in all respects as if due notice thereof had been given. The Board of Directors may postpone, reschedule or cancel any meeting of stockholders previously scheduled by the Board of Directors.
Section 8.QUORUM AND REQUIRED VOTE. At all meetings of stockholders, except where otherwise provided by law, by Certificate of Incorporation, or by these Bylaws, the presence, in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or by proxy duly authorized, of the holders of one-third of the voting power of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. In the absence of a quorum, any meeting of stockholders may be adjourned, from time to time, either by the chairperson of the meeting or by vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares represented thereat, but no other business shall be transacted at such meeting. The stockholders present at a duly called or convened meeting, at which a quorum is present, may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough stockholders to leave less than a quorum. Except as otherwise provided by law or by applicable stock exchange rules, or by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, in all matters other than the election of directors, the affirmative vote of the majority of voting power of the shares present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the subject matter shall be the act of the stockholders. Except as otherwise provided by law, or by applicable stock exchange rules, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes of the shares present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors. Where a separate vote by a class or classes or series is required, except where otherwise provided by law, or by applicable stock exchange rules, or by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, one-third of the voting power of the outstanding shares of such class or classes or series, present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy duly authorized, shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to that vote on that matter. Except where otherwise provided by law, or by applicable stock exchange rules, or by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the affirmative vote of the majority (plurality, in the case of the election of directors) of shares of such class or classes or series present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy at the meeting shall be the act of such class or classes or series.
Section 9.ADJOURNMENT AND NOTICE OF ADJOURNED MEETINGS. Any meeting of stockholders, whether annual or special, may be adjourned from time to time, whether or not a quorum is present at the meeting, either by the chairperson of the meeting or by the vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy at the meeting. When

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a meeting is adjourned (including an adjournment taken to address a technical failure to convene or continue a meeting using remote communication)  to another time or place, if any, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place, if any, of such adjourned meeting, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced (i) at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken, (ii) displayed during the time scheduled for the meeting, on the same electronic network used to enable stockholders and proxy holders to participate in the meeting by means of remote communication, or (iii) set forth in the notice of meeting given in accordance with these Bylaws. At the adjourned meeting, the corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than 30 days or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.
Section 10.VOTING RIGHTS. For the purpose of determining those stockholders entitled to vote on the subject matter at any meeting of the stockholders, except as otherwise provided by law, only persons in whose names shares stand on the stock records of the corporation on the record date, as provided in Section 12, shall be entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders. Every person entitled to vote shall have the right to do so either in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or by an agent or agents authorized by a proxy granted in accordance with the DGCL. An agent so appointed need not be a stockholder. No proxy shall be voted after three years from its date of creation unless the proxy provides for a longer period. Such a proxy may be prepared, transmitted and delivered in any manner permitted by applicable law, including Rule 14a-19 promulgated under the 1934 Act. Any stockholder directly or indirectly soliciting proxies from other stockholders must use a proxy card color other than white, which shall be reserved for the exclusive use by the Board of Directors
Section 11.JOINT OWNERS OF STOCK. If shares or other securities having voting power stand of record in the names of two or more persons, whether fiduciaries, members of a partnership, joint tenants, tenants in common, tenants by the entirety, or otherwise, or if two or more persons have the same fiduciary relationship respecting the same shares, unless the Secretary of the corporation is given written notice to the contrary and is furnished with a copy of the instrument or order appointing them or creating the relationship wherein it is so provided, their acts with respect to voting shall have the following effect: (a) if only one votes, such act binds all; (b) if more than one votes, the act of the majority so voting binds all; or (c) if more than one votes, but the vote is evenly split on any particular matter, each faction may vote the securities in question proportionally, or may apply to the Delaware Court of Chancery for relief as provided in Section 217(b) of the DGCL. If the instrument filed with the Secretary shows that any such tenancy is held in unequal interests, a majority or even-split for the purpose of clause (c) of this Section 11 shall be a majority or even-split in interest.
Section 12.LIST OF STOCKHOLDERS. The corporation shall prepare , no later than the tenth day before each meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at said meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, showing the address of each stockholder and the number and class of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting for a period of ten days ending on the day before the meeting date, (a) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (b) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the corporation. In the event that the corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the corporation. Except as otherwise provided by law, the stock ledger shall be the only evidence as to the stockholders entitled to examine the list of stockholders required by this Section 12 or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of the stockholders.

Section 13.ACTION WITHOUT MEETING. No action shall be taken by the stockholders except at an annual or special meeting of stockholders called in accordance with these Bylaws, and no action shall be taken by the stockholders by consent or electronic transmission.
Section 14.ORGANIZATION.
(a)At every meeting of stockholders, the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, or, if a Chairperson has not been appointed or is absent, the President, or, if the President is absent, a chairperson of the

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meeting chosen by a majority in interest of the stockholders entitled to vote, present in person or by proxy, shall act as chairperson. The Secretary, or, in the Secretary’s absence, an Assistant Secretary directed to do so by the President, shall act as secretary of the meeting.
(b)The Board of Directors of the corporation shall be entitled to make such rules or regulations for the conduct of meetings of stockholders as it shall deem necessary, appropriate or convenient. Subject to such rules and regulations of the Board of Directors, if any, the chairperson of the meeting shall have the right and authority to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairperson, are necessary, appropriate or convenient for the proper conduct of the meeting, including, without limitation, establishing an agenda or order of business for the meeting, rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present, limitations on attendance at or participation in such meeting to stockholders of record of the corporation and their duly authorized and constituted proxies and such other persons as the chairperson shall permit, restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof, limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants and regulation of the opening and closing of the polls for balloting on matters which are to be voted on by ballot. The date and time of the opening and closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at the meeting shall be announced at the meeting. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board of Directors or the chairperson of the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with rules of parliamentary procedure.
(c)In advance of any meeting of the stockholders, the Board of Directors, by resolution, the Chairperson of the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof. One or more other persons may be designated as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is able to act at a meeting of the stockholders, the chairperson of the meeting shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Unless otherwise required by applicable law, inspectors may be officers, employees or agents of the corporation. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of the duties of inspector, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of such inspector's ability. The inspector shall have the duties prescribed by law and shall take charge of the polls and, when the vote is completed, shall execute and deliver to the corporation a certificate of the result of the vote taken and of such other facts as may be required by applicable law.
ARTICLE IV
DIRECTORS
Section 15.NUMBER. The authorized number of directors of the corporation shall be fixed in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation. Directors need not be stockholders unless so required by the Certificate of Incorporation.
Section 16.POWERS. The business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors, except as may be otherwise provided by law or by the Certificate of Incorporation.
Section 17.CLASSES OF DIRECTORS.
(a)Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances, the directors shall be divided into three classes designated as Class I, Class II and Class III, respectively. Initially, directors shall be assigned to each class in accordance with a resolution or resolutions adopted by the Board of Directors. At the first annual meeting of stockholders following the initial classification of the Board of Directors, the term of office of the Class I directors shall expire and Class I directors shall be elected for a full term of three years. At the second annual meeting of stockholders following such initial classification, the term of office of the Class II directors shall expire and Class II directors shall be elected for a full term of three years. At the third annual meeting of stockholders following such initial classification, the term of office of the Class III directors shall expire and Class III directors shall be elected for a full term of three years. At each succeeding annual meeting of stockholders, directors shall be elected for a full term of three years to succeed the directors of the class whose terms expire at such annual meeting.

(b)Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 17, each director shall serve until such director’s successor is duly elected and qualified or until such director’s earlier death, resignation or removal.

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No decrease in the number of directors constituting the Board of Directors shall shorten the term of any incumbent director.
Section 18.VACANCIES.
(a)Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, and subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock, any vacancies on the Board of Directors resulting from death, resignation, disqualification, removal or other causes and any newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the number of directors shall, unless the Board of Directors determines by resolution that any such vacancies or newly created directorships shall be filled by stockholders, be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, even though less than a quorum of the Board of Directors, or by a sole remaining director, and not by the stockholders, provided, however, that whenever the holders of any class or classes of stock or series thereof are entitled to elect one or more directors by the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, vacancies and newly created directorships of such class or classes or series shall, unless the Board of Directors determines by resolution that any such vacancies or newly created directorships shall be filled by stockholders, be filled by a majority of the directors elected by such class or classes or series thereof then in office, or by a sole remaining director so elected, and not by the stockholders. Any director elected in accordance with the preceding sentence shall hold office for the remainder of the full term of the director for which the vacancy was created or occurred and until such director’s successor shall have been elected and qualified. A vacancy in the Board of Directors shall be deemed to exist under this Bylaw in the case of the death, removal or resignation of any director.
Section 19.RESIGNATION. Any director may resign at any time by delivering notice in writing or by electronic transmission to the Secretary of the corporation, such resignation to specify whether it will be effective at a particular time. If no such specification is made, the resignation shall be deemed effective at the time of delivery of the resignation to the Secretary of the corporation. A verbal resignation shall not be deemed effective until confirmed by the director in writing or by electronic transmission to the Secretary of the corporation. When one or more directors shall resign from the Board of Directors, effective at a future date, a majority of the directors then in office, including those who have so resigned, shall have power to fill such vacancy or vacancies, the vote thereon to take effect when such resignation or resignations shall become effective, and each director so chosen shall hold office for the unexpired portion of the term of the director whose place shall be vacated and until such director’s successor shall have been duly elected and qualified.
Section 20.REMOVAL.
(a)Subject to the rights of any series of Preferred Stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances, neither the Board of Directors nor any individual director may be removed without cause.
(b)Subject to any limitations imposed by applicable law, any individual director or directors may be removed with cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all then outstanding shares of capital stock of the corporation entitled to vote generally at an election of directors.
Section 21.MEETINGS.
(a)Regular Meetings. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held at any time or date and at any place within or outside of the State of Delaware which has been designated by the Board of Directors, with notice thereof given to all directors, either orally or in writing, by telephone, including a voice-messaging system or other system designed to record and communicate messages, facsimile, telegraph or telex, or by electronic mail or other electronic means. No further notice shall be required for regular meetings of the Board of Directors.

(b)Special Meetings. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, special meetings of the Board of Directors may be held at any time and place within or outside the State of Delaware whenever called by the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or a majority of the authorized number of directors.

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(c)Meetings by Electronic Communications Equipment. Any member of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may participate in a meeting by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting by such means shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.
(d)Notice of Special Meetings. Notice of the time and place of all special meetings of the Board of Directors shall be orally or in writing, by telephone, including a voice messaging system or other system or technology designed to record and communicate messages, facsimile, telegraph or telex, or by electronic mail or other electronic means, during normal business hours, at least 24 hours before the date and time of the meeting. If notice is sent by U.S. mail, it shall be sent by first class mail, charges prepaid, at least three days before the date of the meeting. Notice of any meeting may be waived in writing, or by electronic transmission, at any time before or after the meeting and will be waived by any director by attendance thereat, except when the director attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.
(e)Waiver of Notice. The transaction of all business at any meeting of the Board of Directors, or any committee thereof, however called or noticed, or wherever held, shall be as valid as though it had been transacted at a meeting duly held after regular call and notice, if a quorum be present and if, either before or after the meeting, each of the directors not present who did not receive notice shall sign a written waiver of notice or shall waive notice by electronic transmission. All such waivers shall be filed with the corporate records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting.
Section 22.QUORUM AND VOTING.
(a)Unless the Certificate of Incorporation requires a greater number, and except with respect to questions related to indemnification arising under Section 43 for which a quorum shall be one-third of the exact number of directors fixed from time to time, a quorum of the Board of Directors shall consist of a majority of the exact number of directors fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation; provided, however, at any meeting whether a quorum be present or otherwise, a majority of the directors present may adjourn from time to time until the time fixed for the next regular meeting of the Board of Directors, without notice other than by announcement at the meeting.
(b)At each meeting of the Board of Directors at which a quorum is present, all questions and business shall be determined by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors present, unless a different vote be required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws.
Section 23.ACTION WITHOUT MEETING. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and such writing or writings or transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.
Section 24.FEES AND COMPENSATION. Directors shall be entitled to such compensation for their services as may be approved by the Board of Directors, including, if so approved, by resolution of the Board of Directors, a fixed sum and expenses of attendance, if any, for attendance at each regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors and at any meeting of a committee of the Board of Directors. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to preclude any director from serving the corporation in any other capacity as an officer, agent, employee, or otherwise and receiving compensation therefor.

Section 25.COMMITTEES.
(a)Executive Committee. The Board of Directors may appoint an Executive Committee to consist of one or more members of the Board of Directors. The Executive Committee, to the extent permitted by law

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and provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation, and may authorize the seal of the corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to (i) approving or adopting, or recommending to the stockholders, any action or matter (other than the election or removal of directors) expressly required by the DGCL to be submitted to stockholders for approval, or (ii) adopting, amending or repealing any Bylaw of the corporation.
(b)Other Committees. The Board of Directors may, from time to time, appoint such other committees as may be permitted by law. Such other committees appointed by the Board of Directors shall consist of one or more members of the Board of Directors and shall have such powers and perform such duties as may be prescribed by the resolution or resolutions creating such committees, but in no event shall any such committee have the powers denied to the Executive Committee in these Bylaws.
(c)Term. The Board of Directors, subject to any requirements of any outstanding series of Preferred Stock and the provisions of subsections (a) or (b) of this Section 25, may at any time increase or decrease the number of members of a committee or terminate the existence of a committee. The membership of a committee member shall terminate on the date of such committee member’s death or voluntary resignation from the committee or from the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may at any time for any reason remove any individual committee member and the Board of Directors may fill any committee vacancy created by death, resignation, removal or increase in the number of members of the committee. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee, and, in addition, in the absence or disqualification of any member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such committee member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member.
(d)Meetings. Unless the Board of Directors shall otherwise provide, regular meetings of the Executive Committee or any other committee appointed pursuant to this Section 25 shall be held at such times and places as are determined by the Board of Directors, or by any such committee, and when notice thereof has been given to each member of such committee, no further notice of such regular meetings need be given thereafter. Special meetings of any such committee may be held at any place which has been determined from time to time by such committee, and may be called by any director who is a member of such committee, upon notice to the members of such committee of the time and place of such special meeting given in the manner provided for the giving of notice to members of the Board of Directors of the time and place of special meetings of the Board of Directors. Notice of any special meeting of any committee may be waived in writing or by electronic transmission at any time before or after the meeting and will be waived by any director by attendance thereat, except when the director attends such special meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Unless otherwise provided by the Board of Directors in the resolutions authorizing the creation of the committee, a majority of the authorized number of members of any such committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, and the act of a majority of those present at any meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of such committee.
Section 26.Organization. At every meeting of the directors, the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, or, if a Chairperson has not been appointed or is absent, the Chief Executive Officer (if a director), or, if a Chief Executive Officer is absent, the President (if a director), or if the President is absent, the most senior Vice President (if a director), or, in the absence of any such person, a Chairperson of the meeting chosen by a majority of the directors present, shall preside over the meeting. The Secretary of the corporation, or in the Secretary’s absence, any Assistant Secretary or other officer or director directed to do so by the Chairperson, shall act as secretary of the meeting.
ARTICLE V
OFFICERS

Section 27.OFFICERS DESIGNATED. The officers of the corporation shall include, if and when designated by the Board of Directors, the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, one or more Vice Presidents, the Secretary, the Chief Financial Officer and the Treasurer. The Board of

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Directors may also appoint one or more Assistant Secretaries and Assistant Treasurers and such other officers and agents with such powers and duties as it shall deem necessary. The Board of Directors may assign such additional titles to one or more of the officers as it shall deem appropriate. Any one person may hold any number of offices of the corporation at any one time unless specifically prohibited therefrom by law. The salaries and other compensation of the officers of the corporation shall be fixed by or in the manner designated by the Board of Directors. The election of an officer shall not of itself create any contract rights.
Section 28.TENURE AND DUTIES OF OFFICERS.
(a)General. All officers shall hold office at the pleasure of the Board of Directors and until their successors shall have been duly elected and qualified, unless sooner removed. Any officer elected or appointed by the Board of Directors may be removed at any time by the Board of Directors. If the office of any officer becomes vacant for any reason, the vacancy may be filled by the Board of Directors.
(b)Duties of Chairperson of the Board of Directors. The Chairperson of the Board of Directors, when present, shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and the Board of Directors. The Chairperson of the Board of Directors shall perform other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors shall designate from time to time. If there is no President or Chief Executive Officer, unless otherwise determined by the Board of Directors, then the Chairperson of the Board of Directors shall also serve as the president of the corporation and shall have the powers and duties prescribed in paragraph (c) of this Section 28.
(c)Duties of Chief Executive Officer. The Chief Executive Officer shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and at all meetings of the Board of Directors, unless the Chairperson of the Board of Directors has been appointed and is present. Unless an officer has been appointed Chief Executive Officer of the corporation, the President shall be the chief executive officer of the corporation. To the extent that a Chief Executive Officer has been appointed and no President has been appointed, all references in these Bylaws to the President shall be deemed references to the Chief Executive Officer. The Chief Executive Officer shall (i) subject to the oversight and control of the Board of Directors, have general supervision, direction and control of the business and officers of the corporation and (ii) perform other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors shall designate from time to time.
(d)Duties of President. The President shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and at all meetings of the Board of Directors, unless the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, or the Chief Executive Officer has been appointed and is present. Unless another officer has been appointed Chief Executive Officer of the corporation, the President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the corporation and shall, subject to the oversight and control of the Board of Directors, have general supervision, direction and control of the business and officers of the corporation. The President shall perform other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors shall designate from time to time.
(e)Duties of Vice Presidents. The Vice Presidents may assume and perform the duties of the President in the absence or disability of the President or whenever the office of President is vacant. The Vice Presidents shall perform other duties commonly incident to their office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer, or, if the Chief Executive Officer has not been appointed or is absent, the President shall designate from time to time.
(f)Duties of Secretary. The Secretary shall attend all meetings of the stockholders and of the Board of Directors and shall record all acts and proceedings thereof in the minute book of the corporation. The Secretary shall give notice in conformity with these Bylaws of all meetings of the stockholders and of all meetings of the Board of Directors and any committee thereof requiring notice. The Secretary shall perform all other duties provided for in these Bylaws and other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors shall designate from time to time. The President may direct any Assistant Secretary or other officer to assume and perform the duties of the Secretary in the absence or disability of the Secretary, and each Assistant Secretary shall perform other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors or the President shall designate from time to time.

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(g)Duties of Chief Financial Officer. The Chief Financial Officer shall keep or cause to be kept the books of account of the corporation in a thorough and proper manner and shall render statements of the financial affairs of the corporation in such form and as often as required by the Board of Directors or the President. The Chief Financial Officer, subject to the order of the Board of Directors, shall have the custody of all funds and securities of the corporation. The Chief Financial Officer shall perform other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors or the President shall designate from time to time. To the extent that a Chief Financial Officer has been appointed and no Treasurer has been appointed, all references in these Bylaws to the Treasurer shall be deemed references to the Chief Financial Officer. The President may direct the Treasurer, if any, or any Assistant Treasurer, or the Controller or any Assistant Controller to assume and perform the duties of the Chief Financial Officer in the absence or disability of the Chief Financial Officer, and each Treasurer and Assistant Treasurer and each Controller and Assistant Controller shall perform other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors or the President shall designate from time to time.
(h)Duties of Treasurer. Unless another officer has been appointed Chief Financial Officer of the corporation, the Treasurer shall be the chief financial officer of the corporation and shall keep or cause to be kept the books of account of the corporation in a thorough and proper manner and shall render statements of the financial affairs of the corporation in such form and as often as required by the Board of Directors or the President, and, subject to the order of the Board of Directors, shall have the custody of all funds and securities of the corporation. The Treasurer shall perform other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors or the President shall designate from time to time.
Section 29.DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY. The Board of Directors may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer to any other officer or agent, notwithstanding any provision hereof.
Section 30.RESIGNATIONS. Any officer may resign at any time by giving notice in writing or by electronic transmission to the Board of Directors or to the President or to the Secretary. Any such resignation shall be effective when received by the person or persons to whom such notice is given, unless a later time is specified therein, in which event the resignation shall become effective at such later time. Unless otherwise specified in such notice, the acceptance of any such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Any resignation shall be without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the corporation under any contract with the resigning officer.
Section 31.REMOVAL. Any officer may be removed from office at any time, either with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors in office at the time, or by the unanimous written consent of the directors in office at the time, or by any committee or by the Chief Executive Officer or by other superior officers upon whom such power of removal may have been conferred by the Board of Directors, but such removal shall be without prejudice to the contract rights, if any, of the person so removed. Any officer or agent elected or appointed by the President may be removed by the President whenever in the President’s judgment the best interests of the corporation would be served thereby, but such removal shall be without prejudice to the contract rights, if any, of the person so removed.
ARTICLE VI
EXECUTION OF CORPORATE INSTRUMENTS AND VOTING OF SECURITIES
OWNED BY THE CORPORATION
Section 32.EXECUTION OF CORPORATE INSTRUMENTS.
(a)The Board of Directors may, in its discretion, determine the method and designate the signatory officer or officers, or other person or persons, to execute on behalf of the corporation any corporate instrument or document, or to sign on behalf of the corporation the corporate name without limitation, or to enter into contracts on behalf of the corporation, except where otherwise provided by law or these Bylaws, and such execution or signature shall be binding upon the corporation.
(b)All checks and drafts drawn on banks or other depositaries on funds to the credit of the corporation or in special accounts of the corporation shall be signed by such person or persons as the Board of Directors shall authorize so to do.

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(c)Unless authorized or ratified by the Board of Directors or within the agency power of an officer, no officer, agent or employee shall have any power or authority to bind the corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable for any purpose or for any amount.
Section 33.VOTING OF SECURITIES OWNED BY THE CORPORATION. All stock and other securities of other corporations owned or held by the corporation for itself, or for other parties in any capacity, shall be voted, and all proxies with respect thereto shall be executed, by the person authorized so to do by resolution of the Board of Directors, or, in the absence of such authorization, by the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, or any Vice President.
ARTICLE VII
SHARES OF STOCK
Section 34.FORM AND EXECUTION OF CERTIFICATES. The shares of the corporation shall be represented by certificates, or shall be uncertificated shares that may be evidenced by a book-entry system maintained by the registrar of such stock if so provided by resolution or resolutions of the Board of Directors. Certificates for the shares of stock of the corporation, if any, shall be in such form as is consistent with the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law. Every holder of stock represented by certificate shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by or in the name of the corporation by the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, or the President or any Vice President and by the Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer or Assistant Treasurer or the Secretary or Assistant Secretary, certifying the number of shares owned by such holder in the corporation. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be facsimile or other electronic means. In case any officer, transfer agent, or registrar who has signed or whose facsimiles or other electronic signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent, or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued with the same effect as if he or she were such officer, transfer agent, or registrar at the date of issue.
Section 35.LOST CERTIFICATES. A new certificate or certificates shall be issued in place of any certificate or certificates theretofore issued by the corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen, or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen, or destroyed. The corporation may require, as a condition precedent to the issuance of a new certificate, certificates or uncertificated shares, the owner of such lost, stolen, or destroyed certificate or certificates, or the owner’s legal representative, to agree to indemnify the corporation in such manner as it shall require or to give the corporation a surety bond in such form and amount as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen, or destroyed or the issuance of such new certificate, certificates or uncertificated shares.
Section 36.TRANSFERS.
(a)Transfers of record of shares of stock of the corporation shall be made in the manner prescribed by law and in these Bylaws. Transfers of stock shall be made on the books administered by or on behalf of the corporation only by the direction of the registered holder thereof, or by such holder’s attorney duly authorized in writing, and, in the case of stock represented by certificate, upon the surrender to the corporation of the certificate or certificates for such shares, which shall be cancelled before a new certificate or uncertificated shares shall be issued.
(b)The corporation shall have power to enter into and perform any agreement with any number of stockholders of any one or more classes of stock of the corporation to restrict the transfer of shares of stock of the corporation of any one or more classes owned by such stockholders in any manner not prohibited by the DGCL.
Section 37.FIXING RECORD DATES.
(a)In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall, subject to applicable law, not be more than 60 nor less than 10 days before the date of such meeting, subject to the provisions of Section 5. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record

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date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.
(b)In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than 60 days prior to such action. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.
Section 38.REGISTERED STOCKHOLDERS. The corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the DGCL.
ARTICLE VIII
OTHER SECURITIES OF THE CORPORATION
Section 39.EXECUTION OF OTHER SECURITIES. All bonds, debentures and other corporate securities of the corporation, other than stock certificates (covered in Section 34), may be signed by the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, President or any Vice President, or such other person as may be authorized by the Board of Directors; provided, however, that where any such bond, debenture or other corporate security shall be authenticated by the manual signature, or where permissible facsimile signature, of a trustee under an indenture pursuant to which such bond, debenture or other corporate security shall be issued, the signatures of the persons signing such bond, debenture or other corporate security may be the imprinted facsimile of the signatures of such persons. Interest coupons appertaining to any such bond, debenture or other corporate security, authenticated by a trustee as aforesaid, shall be signed by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer of the corporation or such other person as may be authorized by the Board of Directors, or bear imprinted thereon the facsimile signature of such person. In case any officer who shall have signed or attested any bond, debenture or other corporate security, or whose facsimile signature shall appear thereon or on any such interest coupon, shall have ceased to be such officer before the bond, debenture or other corporate security so signed or attested shall have been delivered, such bond, debenture or other corporate security nevertheless may be adopted by the corporation and issued and delivered as though the person who signed the same or whose facsimile signature shall have been used thereon had not ceased to be such officer of the corporation.
ARTICLE IX
DIVIDENDS
Section 40.DECLARATION OF DIVIDENDS. Dividends upon the capital stock of the corporation, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law, if any, may be declared by the Board of Directors pursuant to law at any regular or special meeting. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law.
Section 41.DIVIDEND RESERVE. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the Board of Directors from time to time, in their absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the corporation, or for such other purpose as the Board of Directors shall think conducive to the interests of the corporation, and the Board of Directors may modify or abolish any such reserve in the manner in which it was created.

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ARTICLE X
FISCAL YEAR
Section 42.FISCAL YEAR. The fiscal year of the corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors.
ARTICLE XI
INDEMNIFICATION
Section 43.INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES AND OTHER AGENTS.
(a)Directors and Officers. The corporation shall indemnify its directors and officers to the extent not prohibited by the DGCL or any other applicable law; provided, however, that the corporation may modify the extent of such indemnification by individual contracts with its directors and officers; and, provided, further, that the corporation shall not be required to indemnify any director or officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized by the Board of Directors of the corporation, (iii) such indemnification is provided by the corporation, in its sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in the corporation under the DGCL or any other applicable law or (iv) such indemnification is required to be made under subsection (d) of this Section 43.
(b)Employees and Other Agents. The corporation shall have power to indemnify its employees and other agents as set forth in the DGCL or any other applicable law. The Board of Directors shall have the power to delegate the determination of whether to indemnify any such employee or other agent to such officers or other persons as the Board of Directors so determines.
(c)Expenses. The corporation shall advance to any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer, of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director or officer of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, prior to the final disposition of the proceeding, promptly following request therefor, all expenses actually and reasonably incurred by any director or officer in connection with such proceeding provided, however, that if the DGCL requires, an advancement of expenses incurred by a director or officer in such person’s capacity as a director or officer (and not in any other capacity in which service was or is rendered by such indemnitee, including, without limitation, service to an employee benefit plan) shall be made only upon delivery to the corporation of an undertaking, by or on behalf of such indemnitee, to repay all amounts so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined by final judicial decision from which there is no further right to appeal that such indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified for such expenses under this Section 43 or otherwise.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, unless otherwise determined pursuant to paragraph (e) of this Section 43, no advance shall be made by the corporation to an officer of the corporation (except by reason of the fact that such officer is or was a director of the corporation in which event this paragraph shall not apply) in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, if a determination is reasonably and promptly made (i) by a majority vote of directors who were not parties to the proceeding, even if not a quorum, or (ii) by a committee of such directors designated by a majority vote of such directors, even though less than a quorum, or (iii) if there are no such directors, or such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, that the facts known to the decision-making party at the time such determination is made demonstrate clearly and convincingly that such person acted in bad faith or in a manner that such person did not believe to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation.

(d)Enforcement. Without the necessity of entering into an express contract, all rights to indemnification and advances to directors and officers under this Section 43 shall be deemed to be contractual rights and be effective to the same extent and as if provided for in a contract between the corporation and the director or officer. Any right to indemnification or advances granted by this Section 43 to a director or officer shall be enforceable by or on behalf of the person holding such right in any court of competent jurisdiction if (i) the claim for indemnification or advances is denied, in whole or in part, or (ii) no disposition of such claim is made within 90 days

17


of request therefor. To the extent permitted by law, the claimant in such enforcement action, if successful in whole or in part, shall be entitled to be paid also the expense of prosecuting the claim. In connection with any claim for indemnification, the corporation shall be entitled to raise as a defense to any such action that the claimant has not met the standards of conduct that make it permissible under the DGCL or any other applicable law for the corporation to indemnify the claimant for the amount claimed. In connection with any claim by an officer of the corporation (except in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that such officer is or was a director of the corporation) for advances, the corporation shall be entitled to raise a defense as to any such action clear and convincing evidence that such person acted in bad faith or in a manner that such person did not believe to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, or with respect to any criminal action or proceeding that such person acted without reasonable cause to believe that such person’s conduct was lawful. Neither the failure of the corporation (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel or its stockholders) to have made a determination prior to the commencement of such action that indemnification of the claimant is proper in the circumstances because the claimant met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in the DGCL or any other applicable law, nor an actual determination by the corporation (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel or its stockholders) that the claimant has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall be a defense to the action or create a presumption that claimant has not met the applicable standard of conduct. In any suit brought by a director or officer to enforce a right to indemnification or to an advancement of expenses hereunder, the burden of proving that the director or officer is not entitled to be indemnified, or to such advancement of expenses, under this Section 43 or otherwise shall be on the corporation.
(e)Non-Exclusivity of Rights. The rights conferred on any person by this Bylaw shall not be exclusive of any other right which such person may have or hereafter acquire under any applicable law, provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in such person’s official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding office. The corporation is specifically authorized to enter into individual contracts with any or all of its directors, officers, employees or agents respecting indemnification and advances, to the fullest extent not prohibited by the DGCL, or by any other applicable law.
(f)Survival of Rights. The rights conferred on any person by this Bylaw shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director or officer, or, if applicable, employee or other agent, and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.
(g)Insurance. To the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL or any other applicable law, the corporation, upon approval by the Board of Directors, may purchase insurance on behalf of any person required or permitted to be indemnified pursuant to this Section 43.
(h)Amendments. Any repeal or modification of this Section 43 shall only be prospective and shall not affect the rights under this Bylaw in effect at the time of the alleged occurrence of any action or omission to act that is the cause of any proceeding against any agent of the corporation.
(i)Saving Clause. If this Bylaw or any portion hereof shall be invalidated on any ground by any court of competent jurisdiction, then the corporation shall nevertheless indemnify each director and officer to the full extent not prohibited by any applicable portion of this Section 43 that shall not have been invalidated, or by any other applicable law. If this Section 43 shall be invalid due to the application of the indemnification provisions of another jurisdiction, then the corporation shall indemnify each director and officer to the full extent under any other applicable law.
(j)Certain Definitions. For the purposes of this Bylaw, the following definitions shall apply:
(i)The term “proceeding” shall be broadly construed and shall include, without limitation, the investigation, preparation, prosecution, defense, settlement, arbitration and appeal of, and the giving of testimony in, any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative.

18


(ii)The term “expenses” shall be broadly construed and shall include, without limitation, court costs, attorneys’ fees, witness fees, fines, amounts paid in settlement or judgment and any other costs and expenses of any nature or kind incurred in connection with any proceeding.
(iii)The term the “corporation” shall include, in addition to the resulting corporation, any constituent corporation (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its directors, officers, and employees or agents, so that any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of such constituent corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such constituent corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under the provisions of this Section 43 with respect to the resulting or surviving corporation as he or she would have with respect to such constituent corporation if its separate existence had continued.
(iv)References to a “director,” “officer,” “employee,” or “agent” of the corporation shall include, without limitation, situations where such person is serving at the request of the corporation as, respectively, a director, officer, employee, trustee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise.
(v)References to “other enterprise” shall include employee benefit plans; references to “fines” shall include any excise taxes assessed on a person with respect to an employee benefit plan; and references to “serving at the request of the corporation” shall include any service as a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation which imposes duties on, or involves services by, such director, officer, employee, or agent with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants, or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner “not opposed to the best interests of the corporation” as referred to in this Section 43.
ARTICLE XII
NOTICES
Section 44.NOTICES.
(a)Notice to Stockholders. Written notice to stockholders of stockholder meetings shall be given as provided in Section 7. Without limiting the manner by which notice may otherwise be given effectively to stockholders under any agreement or contract with such stockholder, and except as otherwise required by law, written notice to stockholders for purposes other than stockholder meetings may be sent (a) by mail, postage prepaid, addressed to such stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the corporation, (b) by electronic transmission directed to such stockholder’s electronic mail address as it appears on the record of the corporation or (c) by any other method permitted by law (including, but not limited to, overnight courier service,  facsimile or other means of electronic transmission). Any notice shall be deemed to have been given (i) if mailed, when the notice is deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, (ii) if delivered by courier service, the earlier of when the notice is received or left at such stockholder’s address or (iii) if given by electronic mail, when directed to such stockholder’s electronic mail address unless such stockholder has notified the corporation in writing or by electronic transmission of an objection to receiving notice by electronic mail or such notice is prohibited by applicable law, the certificate of incorporation or these Bylaws.
(b)Notice to Directors. Any notice required to be given to any director may be given by the method stated in subsection (a), as otherwise provided in these Bylaws, or by overnight delivery service, facsimile, telex or telegram, except that such notice other than one which is delivered personally shall be sent to such address as such director shall have filed in writing with the Secretary, or, in the absence of such filing, to the last known post office address of such director.
(c)Affidavit of Mailing. An affidavit of mailing, executed by a duly authorized and competent employee of the corporation or its transfer agent appointed with respect to the class of stock affected, or other agent, specifying the name and address or the names and addresses of the stockholder or stockholders, or director

19


or directors, to whom any such notice or notices was or were given, and the time and method of giving the same, shall in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts therein contained.
(d)Methods of Notice. It shall not be necessary that the same method of giving notice be employed in respect of all recipients of notice, but one permissible method may be employed in respect of any one or more, and any other permissible method or methods may be employed in respect of any other or others.

(e)Notice to Person With Whom Communication is Unlawful. Whenever notice is required to be given, under any provision of law or of the Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws of the corporation, to any person with whom communication is unlawful, the giving of such notice to such person shall not be required and there shall be no duty to apply to any governmental authority or agency for a license or permit to give such notice to such person. Any action or meeting which shall be taken or held without notice to any such person with whom communication is unlawful shall have the same force and effect as if such notice had been duly given. In the event that the action taken by the corporation is such as to require the filing of a certificate under any provision of the DGCL, the certificate shall state, if such is the fact and if notice is required, that notice was given to all persons entitled to receive notice except such persons with whom communication is unlawful.
(f)Notice to Stockholders Sharing an Address. Except as otherwise prohibited under the DGCL, any notice given under the provisions of the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws shall be effective if given by a single written notice to stockholders who share an address if consented to by the stockholders at that address to whom such notice is given. Such consent shall have been deemed to have been given if such stockholder fails to object in writing to the corporation within 60 days of having been given notice by the corporation of its intention to send the single notice. Any consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the corporation.
ARTICLE XIII
AMENDMENTS
Section 45.AMENDMENTS. Subject to the limitations set forth in Section 43(h) or the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, the Board of Directors is expressly empowered to adopt, amend or repeal these Bylaws of the corporation. Any adoption, amendment or repeal of these Bylaws of the corporation by the Board of Directors shall require the approval of a majority of the authorized number of directors present at the meeting of a Board of Directors at which a quorum is present. The stockholders also shall have power to adopt, amend or repeal these Bylaws of the corporation; provided, however, that, in addition to any vote of the holders of any class or series of stock of the corporation required by law or by the Certificate of Incorporation, such action by stockholders shall require the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of the capital stock of the corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class. Any proposal by a stockholder to amend these Bylaws will also be subject to the provisions of Article III.
ARTICLE XIV
FORUM FOR ADJUDICATION OF DISPUTES
Section 46.FORUM FOR ADJUDICATION OF DISPUTES. Unless the corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if and only if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware lacks subject matter jurisdiction, any state court located within the State of Delaware or, if and only if all such state courts lack subject matter jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) shall be the sole and exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings: (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the corporation, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, employee or stockholder of the corporation to the corporation or the corporation’s stockholders, (c) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws  (as either may be amended or restated) or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or (d) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, in all cases to the fullest extent permitted by law and subject to the court’s having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants.

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If any action the subject matter of which is within the scope of this Section 46 is filed in a court other than a court located within the State of Delaware (a “Foreign Action”) in the name of any stockholder, such stockholder shall be deemed to have consented to: (i) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts located within the State of Delaware in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce this Section 46 (an “Enforcement Action”); and (ii) having service of process made upon such stockholder in any such Enforcement Action by service upon such stockholder’s counsel in the Foreign Action as agent for such stockholder. This Section 46 shall not apply to actions brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the 1934 Act or the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or any claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.

Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of capital stock of the corporation shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of this Section 46.

21


Exhibit 4.3

NEUROBO PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.,


Issuer

AND

[TRUSTEE],
Trustee


INDENTURE


Dated as of [●], 20_____

Debt Securities


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS

1

SECTION 1.01

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS.

1

ARTICLE 2 ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

5

SECTION 2.01

DESIGNATION AND TERMS OF SECURITIES.

5

SECTION 2.02

FORM OF SECURITIES AND TRUSTEE’S CERTIFICATE.

8

SECTION 2.03

DENOMINATIONS: PROVISIONS FOR PAYMENT.

8

SECTION 2.04

EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATIONS.

10

SECTION 2.05

REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE.

10

SECTION 2.06

TEMPORARY SECURITIES.

12

SECTION 2.07

MUTILATED, DESTROYED, LOST OR STOLEN SECURITIES.

12

SECTION 2.08

CANCELLATION.

13

SECTION 2.09

BENEFITS OF INDENTURE.

13

SECTION 2.10

AUTHENTICATING AGENT.

13

SECTION 2.11

GLOBAL SECURITIES.

14

SECTION 2.12

CUSIP NUMBERS.

15

ARTICLE 3 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

15

SECTION 3.01

REDEMPTION.

15

SECTION 3.02

NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.

15

SECTION 3.03

PAYMENT UPON REDEMPTION.

16

SECTION 3.04

SINKING FUND.

17

SECTION 3.05

SATISFACTION OF SINKING FUND PAYMENTS WITH SECURITIES.

17

SECTION 3.06

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES FOR SINKING FUND.

17

ARTICLE 4 COVENANTS

18

SECTION 4.01

PAYMENT OF PRINCIPAL, PREMIUM AND INTEREST.

18

SECTION 4.02

MAINTENANCE OF OFFICE OR AGENCY.

18

SECTION 4.03

PAYING AGENTS.

19

SECTION 4.04

APPOINTMENT TO FILL VACANCY IN OFFICE OF TRUSTEE.

20

ARTICLE 5 SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

20

SECTION 5.01

COMPANY TO FURNISH TRUSTEE NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF SECURITYHOLDERS.

20

SECTION 5.02

PRESERVATION OF INFORMATION; COMMUNICATIONS WITH SECURITYHOLDERS.

20

SECTION 5.03

REPORTS BY THE COMPANY.

20

i


SECTION 5.04

REPORTS BY THE TRUSTEE.

21

ARTICLE 6 REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

21

SECTION 6.01

EVENTS OF DEFAULT.

21

SECTION 6.02

COLLECTION OF INDEBTEDNESS AND SUITS FOR ENFORCEMENT BY TRUSTEE.

23

SECTION 6.03

APPLICATION OF MONEYS COLLECTED.

25

SECTION 6.04

LIMITATION ON SUITS.

25

SECTION 6.05

RIGHTS AND REMEDIES CUMULATIVE; DELAY OR OMISSION NOT WAIVER.

26

SECTION 6.06

CONTROL BY SECURITYHOLDERS.

26

SECTION 6.07

UNDERTAKING TO PAY COSTS.

27

ARTICLE 7 CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

27

SECTION 7.01

CERTAIN DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF TRUSTEE.

27

SECTION 7.02

CERTAIN RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.

28

SECTION 7.03

TRUSTEE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR RECITALS OR ISSUANCE OR SECURITIES.

30

SECTION 7.04

MAY HOLD SECURITIES.

31

SECTION 7.05

MONEYS HELD IN TRUST.

31

SECTION 7.06

COMPENSATION AND REIMBURSEMENT.

31

SECTION 7.07

RELIANCE ON OFFICER’S CERTIFICATE.

32

SECTION 7.08

DISQUALIFICATION; CONFLICTING INTERESTS.

32

SECTION 7.09

CORPORATE TRUSTEE REQUIRED; ELIGIBILITY.

32

SECTION 7.10

RESIGNATION AND REMOVAL; APPOINTMENT OF SUCCESSOR.

33

SECTION 7.11

ACCEPTANCE OF APPOINTMENT BY SUCCESSOR.

34

SECTION 7.12

MERGER, CONVERSION, CONSOLIDATION OR SUCCESSION TO BUSINESS.

35

SECTION 7.13

PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST THE COMPANY.

35

SECTION 7.14

NOTICE OF DEFAULT.

35

ARTICLE 8 CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

36

SECTION 8.01

EVIDENCE OF ACTION BY SECURITYHOLDERS.

36

SECTION 8.02

PROOF OF EXECUTION BY SECURITYHOLDERS.

36

SECTION 8.03

WHO MAY BE DEEMED OWNERS.

37

SECTION 8.04

CERTAIN SECURITIES OWNED BY COMPANY DISREGARDED.

37

SECTION 8.05

ACTIONS BINDING ON FUTURE SECURITYHOLDERS.

37

ARTICLE 9 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

38

SECTION 9.01

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF SECURITYHOLDERS.

38

ii


iii


SECTION 9.02

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES WITH CONSENT OF SECURITYHOLDERS.

39

SECTION 9.03

EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES.

39

SECTION 9.04

SECURITIES AFFECTED BY SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES.

39

SECTION 9.05

EXECUTION OF SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES.

40

ARTICLE 10 SUCCESSOR ENTITY

40

SECTION 10.01

COMPANY MAY CONSOLIDATE, ETC.

40

SECTION 10.02

SUCCESSOR ENTITY SUBSTITUTED.

41

ARTICLE 11 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

41

SECTION 11.01

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE.

41

SECTION 11.02

DISCHARGE OF OBLIGATIONS.

42

SECTION 11.03

DEPOSITED MONEYS TO BE HELD IN TRUST.

42

SECTION 11.04

PAYMENT OF MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENTS.

42

SECTION 11.05

REPAYMENT TO COMPANY.

42

ARTICLE 12 IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

43

SECTION 12.01

NO RECOURSE.

43

ARTICLE 13 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

43

SECTION 13.01

EFFECT ON SUCCESSORS AND ASSIGNS.

43

SECTION 13.02

ACTIONS BY SUCCESSOR.

44

SECTION 13.03

SURRENDER OF COMPANY POWERS.

44

SECTION 13.04

NOTICES.

44

SECTION 13.05

GOVERNING LAW; JURY TRIAL WAIVER.

44

SECTION 13.06

TREATMENT OF SECURITIES AS DEBT.

44

SECTION 13.07

CERTIFICATES AND OPINIONS AS TO CONDITIONS PRECEDENT.

45

SECTION 13.08

PAYMENTS ON BUSINESS DAYS.

45

SECTION 13.09

CONFLICT WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

45

SECTION 13.10

COUNTERPARTS.

45

SECTION 13.11

SEVERABILITY.

46

SECTION 13.12

COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATES.

46

SECTION 13.13

U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT.

46

SECTION 13.14

FORCE MAJEURE.

46

SECTION 13.15

TABLE OF CONTENTS; HEADINGS.

46

iv


INDENTURE

THIS INDENTURE, dated as of [●], 20___, between NeuroBo Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [TRUSTEE], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

Recitals

Whereas, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

Whereas, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

Whereas, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

Agreement

Now, Therefore, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

ARTICLE 1
DEFINITIONS

Section 1.01Definitions of Terms.

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

“Authenticating Agent” means the Trustee or an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

“Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

1


“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors (or the functional equivalent thereof) of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors (or duly authorized committee thereof) and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

“Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

“Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

“Company” means NeuroBo Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at                      .

“Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

“Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

“Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

“Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

“Exchange Act” means the United States Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder.

The term “given”, “mailed”, “notify” or “sent” with respect to any notice to be given to a Securityholder pursuant to this Indenture, shall mean notice (x) given to the Depositary (or its designee) pursuant to the standing instructions from the Depositary or its designee, including by electronic mail in accordance with accepted practices or procedures at the Depositary (in the case of a Global Security) or (y) mailed to such Holder by first class mail, postage prepaid, at its

2


address as it appears on the Security Register (in the case of a definitive Security). Notice so “given” shall be deemed to include any notice to be “mailed” or “delivered,” as applicable, under this Indenture.

“Global Security” means a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

“Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

“herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

“Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

“Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a president, a chief financial officer, a chief operating officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, the controller or any assistant controller or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

“Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

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“Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

“Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article Three, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

Person means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

Predecessor Security of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

“Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and in each case who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

“Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

“Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security is registered on the Security Register kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

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“Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings as set forth in Section 2.05.

“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.

“Trustee” means ________, and, subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

“U.S.A. Patriot Act” means the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107-56, as amended and signed into law October 26, 2001.

ARTICLE 2
ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

Section 2.01Designation and Terms of Securities.

(a)The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

(1)the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

(2)any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

(3)the maturity date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;

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(4)the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the certificate of authentication for such series;

(5)the applicability of any guarantees;

(6)whether or not the Securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

(7)whether the Securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

(8)if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such Securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

(9)the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

(10)the Company’s right, if any, to defer the payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

(11)if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, the Company may at its option, redeem the series of Securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

(12)the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which the Company is obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the Securityholder’s option to purchase, the series of Securities and the currency or currency unit in which the Securities are payable;

(13)the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable, if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof;

(14)any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

(15)whether the Securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a Global Security or Securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such Global Security or Securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual Securities; and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities;

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(16)if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange, which may, without limitation, include the payment of cash as well as the delivery of securities;

(17)if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

(18)additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the series of Securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

(19)additions to or changes in the Events of Default with respect to the Securities and any change in the right of the Trustee or the Securityholders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such Securities to be due and payable;

(20)additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

(21)additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture;

(22)additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of this Indenture both with and without the consent of Securityholders of Securities issued under this Indenture;

(23)the currency of payment of Securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

(24)whether interest will be payable in cash or additional Securities at the Company’s or the Securityholders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

(25)the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

(26)any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series;and

(27)any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the Securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of this Indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

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All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

Section 2.02Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, and they may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

Section 2.03Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(13). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Subject to Section 2.01(a)(23), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption or repurchase thereof prior to maturity, and any cash amount due upon conversion or exchange thereof, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

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Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

(1)The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be sent, to each Securityholder not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been sent as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register on such special record date.

(2)The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities and any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the first day of the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

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Section 2.04Execution and Authentications.

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by one of its Officers. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.

The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an Officer (at the time of execution), notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by an Officer, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

Upon the Company’s delivery of any such authentication order to the Trustee at any time after the initial issuance of Securities under this Indenture, the Trustee shall be provided with, and (subject to Sections 315(a) through 315(d) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall be fully protected in relying upon, (1) an Opinion of Counsel or reliance letter and (2) an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent to the execution, authentication and delivery of such Securities are in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

Section 2.05Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

(a)Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

(b)The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable

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times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution or Supplemental Indenture (the “Security Registrar”).

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

The Company initially appoints the Trustee as initial Security Registrar for each series of Securities.

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

(c)Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series or repurchase, conversion or exchange of less than the entire principal amount of a Security, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

(d)The Company and the Security Registrar shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the sending of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such sending, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption or surrendered for repurchase, but not validly withdrawn, other than the unredeemed portion of any such Securities being redeemed in part or not surrendered for repurchase, as the case may be. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

The Trustee shall have no obligation or duty to monitor, determine or inquire as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer imposed under this Indenture or under applicable law with respect to any transfer of any interest in any Security (including any transfers between or among Depositary participants or beneficial owners of interests in any Global Security) other than to require delivery of such certificates and other documentation or evidence as are expressly required by, and to do so if and when expressly required by the terms of, this Indenture, and to examine the same to determine substantial compliance as to form with the express requirements hereof.

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Section 2.06Temporary Securities.

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the Securityholders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

Section 2.07Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

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Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

Section 2.08Cancellation.

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, repurchase, exchange, registration of transfer or conversion shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent (or any other applicable agent), be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.09Benefits of Indenture.

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

Section 2.10Authenticating Agent.

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption, repurchase or conversion thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to

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conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

Section 2.11Global Securities.

(a)If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction (or if the Depositary names the Trustee as its custodian, retained by the Trustee), and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

(b)Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

(c)If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, or if an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing and the Company has received a request from the Depositary or from the Trustee, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the

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provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and, subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

Section 2.12CUSIP Numbers.

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP”